PENDULUM MIGRATIONS IN THE CIRCUM-PONTIC STEPPE AND CENTRAL EUROPE DURING THE PALEOMETAL EPOCH AND THE PROBLEM OF GENESIS OF THE YAMNA CULTURE


  • S. V. Ivanova Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • A. G. Nikitin Grand Valley State University
  • D. V. Kiosak Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University
Keywords: Aeneolithic — Early Bronze Age, Yamna cultural and historical entity, mitochondrial DNA, paleogenetics, pendulum migrations.

Abstract

This article is dedicated to the problem of the origin and spread of the Yamna cultural-historical community (YCHC) in the context of the hypothesis recently expressed by geneticists about the massive migration of population groups genetically related to YCHC and carrying the genetic determinants of the Iranian Neolithic agrarians and hunters and fishers of the North Caucasus from the Ponto- Caspian steppe to central and northern Europe at the beginning of the Bronze Age. Based on an in-depth archeological and genetic analysis, we propose that the genetic «invasion» of the Iranian-Caucasian genetic element into Europe at the beginning of the Bronze Age, recently proposed by paleogenetisits on the basis of a large-scale study of ancient DNA, was not the result of a large-scale migration of representatives of YCHC from the Ponto-Caspian steppes to central and northern Europe, but the result of global population and cultural changes in Eurasia at the end of the Atlantic climatic optimum. We further suggest that before the steppe genetics appeared in Europe at the beginning of the Bronze Age, central European genetic determinants appeared in the steppe in the Eneolithic, and that the movement of the steppe genetic element to Europe was at least in part the second phase of the «pendular» migration of European expatriates, returning to the historical zone of habitation. We also come to the conclusion that the very concept of distinguishing YCHC as a monolithic entity is inappropriate, and that the groups of nomadic tribes of the Ponto-Caspian steppe most likely existed as discrete communities, although united by a common ideology and a genetic relationship that included both the Iranian-Caucasian (throughout the entire range), and European / Anatolian agricultural (locally) genetic elements.

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2018-03-22
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Ivanova, S. V., Nikitin, A. G., & Kiosak, D. V. (2018). PENDULUM MIGRATIONS IN THE CIRCUM-PONTIC STEPPE AND CENTRAL EUROPE DURING THE PALEOMETAL EPOCH AND THE PROBLEM OF GENESIS OF THE YAMNA CULTURE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 26(1), 101-146. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2018.01.07