THE ROADS OF MILITARY EVENTS: BUKOVINA, XIV—XVIII CENTURIES
The presence of communication, their density, quality, parameters to a large extent determine the strategy, logistics, tactics and overall success of military conflict resolution. On the territory of Bukovina, which is marked by an intensely dissected topography and a high degree of afforestation, the road network adapted to these difficult conditions. It played a decisive role in the implementation of the historical-geographical process in its belligerative format. From this position military conflicts signifying for Bukovyna were analyzed.
The battle in the Kozmin forest (October 1497) between Poland (Jan Olbright) and Moldova (Stefan the Great) (Chernivtsi region, Glybotsky district) is very interesting for military history. Due to the high level of forestness of the territory and a small number of roads, the battle took place along the main road at a distance of 20—22 km. For those times it became a unique phenomenon. The tactics of the forest ambush allowed a much smaller Moldovian army (a maximum of 16—17 thousand people) to achieve significant success in a short time.
Was destroyed more than half of the living force of the enemy, captured several thousand Poles, seized all the siege technology, artillery, column, carriage of the king. As a result, from 50—60 thousand Polish troops returned home only a dozen of personal guards of the king.
In October 1685, fighting near the villages of Boyany — Raranche (Novoselytsya district) took place between the troops of the Polish crown hetman Jan Jablonowski (30000 soldiers) and the Turkish-Tatar-Moldovian coalition (about 140 thousand soldiers). The commander, who was pressed to the forested hills of Khotyn highland, had to look for ways to retreat by forest roads. Due to their small quantity and poor condition, carrying out rearguard battles, he managed to save the army from defeat. The author supposed 3 options for choosing a retreat path. Now is necessary to determine the actual road with additional research using a metal detector.
In November 1691, near the village of Ropcha (Storozhynets district), after leaving Moldova, the army of Jan Sobieski, on the only one old transit route here, fell on a three-day snow storm. Non combat losses was more than 50 % soldiers, 100 % ammunition, artillery, many horses and carts. The reason is in a small number of dwellings near this road and in the absence of feed.
In 1739, during the Russo-Turkish War, the Russian army under General von Münnich in the territory of the Khotyn Hill unexpectedly and illogically used the difficult path for maneuvering across forests between the villages Zhuchka and Raranche. As a result of the two subsequent battles, the Turkish Army was broken up.
Thus, the historical geographic analysis on the principle of reflection gives the excellent opportunity to identify the nature and course of military events, exploring the network of ancient routes.
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