COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE EVE OF THE FORMATION OF OLD RUS’


  • S. A. Gorbanenko Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: last quarter of 1st thousand AD, agriculture, paleoecology, farming, livestock breeding, palaeothnobotany, archaeozoology, tools of agriculture, tools of animal husbandry.

Abstract

The article is a definite result of the study of agriculture of archeological cultures of the last quarter of the 1st millennium AD in the south of Eastern Europe, which became the basis for the formation of Old Rus’ material culture. The object of the study are archeological cultures, which were the basis and / or the place for the emergence of the Old Rus’ culture. They are the Borshevo culture on the Don, the Saltiv culture (mainly based on the materials of the Siversky-Donetsk region), the Volintseve and Romny sites (the left bank of the Dnieper), as well as the Raiky culture (the territory between the Dnieper and the Carpathians) (Fig. 1). The subject of the study are the components of agriculture (farming and livestock breeding) in these cultures.

Nowadays the degree of research of these sectors allows us to conduct their comparative analysis and to determine the vectors of influences. The analysis of potential resource zones shows that ancient settlers at the time of settlement probably did not attach much importance to the surrounding lands, and gradually adapted them to their needs. According to the results of the analysis of the location of the Saltiv and Romny sites in the Siverskyi-Donetsk region contact area, we can say that the bearers of the Romny culture came to the resource zones already absorbed by the Saltiv people. Above all, this concerns the use of the land for agricultural purposes. We can offer a similar situation for bearers of the Raiky culture, which often continued to use the resource areas assimilated by their predecessors — the Prague culture bearers.

Comparative analysis of agricultural implements (Fig. 2; 3) shows that the Saltiv culture bearers had a negligible positive influence on the spread of certain forms of tools of agricultural labor. Biological definitions and palaeoethnobotanical and archaeozoological analyzes (Fig. 4—6) are more likely to show insignificant differences in environmental conditions, as well as, possibly, in the ethnicity of ancient farmers. No influences of one culture on another were found on these materials. Probably, meat production among the population of the Saltiv culture has acquired certain forms of specialization because only in this culture such specific tools as cutting knives are known now (Fig. 7).

The overall result may be the following. Among the comparable cultures, both branches of agriculture were the most developed among the bearers of the Saltiv culture. They had some influence on the development of agriculture among their neighbors — the Siverians and the Slavs on the Don. However, in all these cultures, the level of development of agriculture was approximately the same. It is not possible to take certain differences in livestock production for criteria of greater or lesser degree of development, since livestock production reflects most likely the ecological differences of settlements and the ethnic difference of settlers.

References

Baran, V. D. 1988. Prazhskaya kultura Podnestrovia (po materialam poseleniy u s. Rashkov). Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Baran, Ia. V. 2004. Slov’ianska obshchyna. Kyiv; Chernivtsi: Zelena Bukovyna.
Belan, N. G. 1978. Fauna gorodishcha Monastyrek na Srednem Dnepre. In: Gening, V. F. (ed.). Ispolzovaniye metodov estestvennykh nauk v arkheologii. Kiev: Naukova dumka. s. 96-109.
Boltryk, Iu. V., Gorbanenko, S. A., Kublii, M. V., Serhieieva, M. S., Yanish, Ie. Iu. 2015. Severynivske horodyshche skifskoho chasu: biohospodarskyi aspekt doslidzhen. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 4 (17), s. 155-192.
Vakulenko, L. V., Prikhodnyuk, O. M. 1984. Slavyanskiye poseleniya I tys. n. e. u s. Sokol na Srednem Dnestre. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Vinnikov, A. Z. 1995. Slavyane lesostepnogo Dona v rannem srednevekovye (VIII — nachalo XI veka). Voronezh: VGU.
Vinnikov, A. Z. 2014. Yugo-Vostochnaya okraina slavyanskogo mira v VII — nachale XIII vv. (Zhivotinnoye gorodishche na r. Voronezh). Voronezh: Kvarta.
Vinnikov, A. Z., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2013. Selskoye khozyaystvo zhiteley Zhivotinnogo gorodishcha. Stratum plus, 5, s. 347-357.
Vinnikov, A. Z., Gorbanenko, S. A., Kovalevskiy, V. N. 2014. Okhota naseleniya borshevskoy kultury. In: Medvedev, A. P. (ed.). Arkheologiya i okhrana arkheologicheskogo naslediya Tsentralnoy Rossii. Voronezh: VGU, s. 179-197.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2003—2004. Okruzhayushchaya sreda i slavyanskiye pamyatniki vtoroy poloviny І tys. n. e. (po materialam Levoberezhia Dnepra). Stratum plus, 5, s. 400-425.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2004. Silske hospodarstvo slov’ian druhoi polovyny I tys. n. e. (za materialamy Livoberezhzhia Dnipra). In: Kozak, D. N. (ed.). Arkheolohiia davnikh slov’ian: doslidzhennia i materialy. Kyiv: IA NANU, s. 301-314.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2006. Zemlerobstvo slov’ian ostannoi chverti I tys. n. e. Arkheolohiia, 3, s. 73-79.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2007. Zemlerobstvo i tvarynnytstvo slov’ian Livobe-rezhzhia Dnipra druhoi polovyny I tys. n. e. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2009. Systemy zemlerobstva slov’ian kintsia I tys. do n. e. — I tys. n. e. Muzeinyi visnyk, 9, s. 85-103.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2010a. Znariaddia zemlerobstva kintsia I tys. do n. e. — I tys. n. e. Porivnialnyi analiz. Arkheolohiia, 4, s. 46-60.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2010b. Tvarynnytstvo u nosiiv saltivskoi kultury. Arkheolohichni studii, 4, s. 92-108.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2011a. Metody interpretatsii silskohospodarskykh materialiv. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 5, s. 201-214.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2011b. Metody interpretatsii selskokhozyaystvennykh materialov. Stratum plus, 5, s. 299-314.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2012a. Paleoetnobotanicheskiye materialy borshevskoy kultury. Vostochnoyevropeyskiye drevnosti. Vestnik Ostrogozhskogo istoriko-khudozhestvennogo muzeya im. I. N. Kramskogo, 2, s. 230-244.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2012b. Silske hospodarstvo zhyteliv Bytytskoho horodyshcha. Arkheolohiia, 1, s. 98-114.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2013a. Metody interpretatsii paleoetnobotanicheskikh materialov (na primere materialov iz Velikoy Bugayevki). Stratum plus, 4, s. 293-299.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2013b. Paleobotanichni doslidzhennia saltivskykh pam’iatok Lisostepu. Saltovo-maiatska arkheolohichna kultura: problemy ta doslidzhennia, 3, s. 45-51, 148-150.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2013c. Paleoetnobotanicheskiye materialy s Zhivotinnogo gorodishcha (po otpechatkam na izdeliyakh iz gliny). Drevnosti, 12, s. 273-282.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2014a. Zernove hospodarstvo siverian. Arkheolohiia, 1, s. 113-123.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2014b. Paleoetnobotanichni doslidzhennia slov’ianskykh pam’iatok Bukovyny. Arkheolohichni studii, 5, s. 200-211.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2014c. Paleoetnobotanichni materialy z NF IA NANU zi slov’ianskykh pam’iatok. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1 (12), s. 180-186.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2014d. Rilnytstvo u nosiiv borshevskoi kultury. Arkheolohiia, 2, s. 110-120.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2015a. Paleoetnobotanicheskiye materialy prazhskoy kultury. Kratkiye soobshcheniya Instituta arkheologii, 238, s. 296-315.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2015b. Paleoetnobotanichni dani z poselennia raikovetskoi kultury Mala Snitynka. Arkheolohiia, 1, s. 109-116.
Gorbanenko, S. A. 2016. Selskoye khozyaystvo kolochinskoy kultury. Ranneslavyanskiy mir, 17, s. 114-135.
Gorbanenko, S. A., Zhuravlov, O. P., Pashkevych, H. O. 2008. Silske hospodarstvo zhyteliv Pastyrskoho horodyshcha. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.
Gorbanenko, S. A., Pashkevych, H. O. 2010. Zemlerobstvo davnikh slov’ian (kinets I tys. do n. e. — I tys. n. e.). Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.
Gorbanenko, S. A., Koloda, V. V. 2011. Obobshchayushchiy analiz selskogo khozyaystva nositeley saltovskoy kultury. Materialy i doslidzhennia po ar-kheolohii Skhidnoi Ukrainy, 11, s. 228-239.
Gorbanenko, S. A., Koloda, V. V. 2013. Silske hospodarstvo na slov’iano-khozarskomu porubizhzhi. Kyiv: IA NANU.
Gotun, I. A., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2016a. Zemlerobstvo zhyteliv slov’ianskoho poselennia v uroch. Kozakiv yar u Khodosivtsi. In Sclavenia terra, 1, s. 153-171.
Gotun, I. A., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2016b. Kompleks zemlerobskykh znariad z okolyts Boiarky. Arkheolohiia, 1, s. 104-117.
Davydenko, V. V., Grib, V. K. 2011. «Gosudarev Yar» — novyy pamyatnik X—XI vv. v srednem techenii Severskogo Dontsa (predvaritelnaya publikatsiya). Arkheologicheskiy almanakh, 25, s. 250-269.
Dovzhenok, V. I. 1952. Rozkopky bilia s. Volyntsevo, Sumskoi obl. Arkheolohichni pam’iatky URSR, 3, s. 251-270.
Efimenko, P. P., Tretiakov, P. N. 1948. Drevnerusskiye poseleniya na Donu. Moskva: Nauka. Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR, 8.
Zhuravlov, O. P., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2013. Arkheozoolohiia v Ukraini. Pam’iatky I tys. do n. e. — I tys. n. e. Naukovi studii. Istoryko-kraieznavchyi muzei m. Vynnyky, 6, s. 195-203.
Karavaiko, D. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2012. Hospodarstvo nosiiv yukhnivskoi kultury. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.
Kovalevskyi, V. M., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2014. Znakhidka zaliznoho rala v raioni Zhyvotynnoho horodyshcha. Arkheolohiia, 3, s. 103-106.
Koloda, V. V. 2013. Dva saltovskikh kompleksa iz Gosudareva Yara. Saltovo-maiatska arkheolohichna kultura: problemy ta doslidzhennia, 3, s. 73-81, 161-168.
Koloda, V. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2010a. Osile tvarynnytstvo u nosiiv saltivskoi kultury na Donu. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1, s. 490-501.
Koloda, V. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2010b. Selskoye khozyaystvo nositeley saltovskoy kultury v lesostepnoy zone. Kiev: IA NANU.
Koloda, V. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2011. Sravnitelnyy analiz materialov selskogo khozyaystva u nositeley saltovskoy kultury i slavyan Dneprovskogo Levoberezhia. Stratum plus, 5, s. 315-326.
Koloda, V. V., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2018. Silske hospodarstvo naselennia Khozarskoho kahanatu v lisostepovii zoni. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka.
Kravchenko, R. A., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2017. Materialy do vyvchennia zemlerobstva meshkantsiv horodyshcha Radychivske 3. In: Skyba, A. V., Gorbanenko, S. A., (ed.). Yevropeiska arkheolohiia I tysiacholittia n. e.: Zbirnyk naukovykh prats na chest Liany Vasylivny Vakulenko. Kyiv: IA NAN Ukrainy, s. 267-274.
Lyapushkin, I. I. 1958a. Gorodishche Novotroitskoye. O kulture vostochnykh slavyan v period slozheniya Kievskogo gosudarstva. Moskva, Leningrad: AN SSSR. Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR, 74.
Lyapushkin, I. I. 1958b. K voprosu o pamyatnikakh volyntsevskogo tipa. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 29, s. 58-83.
Maksimov, E. V., Petrashenko, V. A. 1988. Slavyanskiye pamyatniki u s. Monastyrek na srednem Dnepre. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Mykhailyna, L. P. 2007. Slov’iany VIII—X st. mizh Dniprom i Karpatamy. Kyiv: IA NANU.
Mykhailyna, L. P. 2014. Novi materialy z Revnianskoho hnizda poselen raikovetskoi kultury. In: Ivakin, H. Iu. (ed.). Vid venediv do Rusi: zbirnyk naukovykh prats na poshanu dokt. ist. nauk, prof. D. N. Kozaka z nahody yoho 70-littia. Kyiv: IA NANU; Kharkiv: Maidan, s. 357-364.
Moskalenko, A. N. 1965. Gorodishche Titchikha. Iz istorii drevnerusskogo poseleniya na Donu. Voronezh: VGU.
Pashkevich, G. A., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2004. K voprosu o zemledelii plemen saltovskoy kultury (po materialam poseleniya Rogalik). Drevnosti 2004, s. 225-236.
Pashkevych, H. O., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2010. Kataloh paleobotanichnykh materialiv pam’iatok slov’ianskykh kultur. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 3, s. 105-123.
Pyvovarov, S. V., Ilkiv, M. V. 2014. Ridkivske poselennia raikovetskoi kultury u Verkhnomu Poprutti. In: Ivakin, H. Iu. (ed.). Vid venediv do Rusi: zbirnyk naukovykh prats na poshanu dokt. ist. nauk, prof. D. N. Kozaka z nahody yoho 70-littia. Kyiv: IA NANU; Kharkiv: Maidan, s. 345-356.
Pletneva, S. A. 1989. Na slavyano-khazarskom pogranichye. Dmitriyevskiy arkheologicheskiy kompleks. Moskva: Nauka.
Pryshchepa, B. A., Voitiuk, O. P., Gorbanenko, S. A. 2016. Peresopnytsia 2015: kompleksni doslidzhennia poselennia kintsia I tys. n. e. v urochyshchi Pastivnyk. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 4 (21), s. 129-138.
Rusanova, N. P., Timoshchuk, B. A. 1984. Kodyn — slavyanskiye poseleniya V—VIII vv. na r. Prut. Moskva: Nauka.
Timoshchuk, B. A. 1995. Vostochnyye slavyane: ot obshchiny k gorodam. Moskva: MGU.
Tomashevskiy, A. P., Gavritukhin, I. O. 1992. Slavyanskoye poseleniye Teterevka 1 (Preprint). Kiev.
Tretiakov, P. N. 1946. Vostochnoslavyanskiye plemena v svete arkheologicheskikh issledovaniy poslednikh let. Kratkiye soobshcheniya IIMK, 13, s. 39-46.
Tretiakov, P. N. 1947. Starodavni slov’ianski horodyshcha u verkhnii techii Vorskly. Arkheolohiia, I, s. 123-140.
Tretiakov, P. N. 1951. Selskoye khozyaystvo i promysly. In: Grekov, B. D., Artamonov, M. I. (ed.). Istoriya kultury Drevney Rusi. Moskva. Leningrad: AN SSSR. s. 47-77.
Tretiakov, P. N. 1966. Finno-ugry, balty i slavyane na Dnepre i Volge. Moskva. Leningrad: Nauka.
Tretiakov, P. N. 1969. Nekotoryye itogi izucheniya vostochnoslavyanskikh drevnostey. Kratkiye soobshcheniya Instituta arkheologii, 118, s. 20-31.
Fedorov, G. B. 1953. Gorodishche Ekimautsy (raboty Slavyano-Dnestrovskoy ekspeditsii v 1951 g.). Kratkiye soobshcheniya IIMK, 50, s. 104-126.
Fylypchuk, M. A. 2012. Slov’ianski poselennia VIII—X st. v ukrainskomu Prykarpatti. Lviv: Astroliabiia.
Tsalkin, V. I. 1969. Fauna iz raskopok borshevskikh i romenskikh gorodishch. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 4, s. 91-101.
Chernenko, O. Ie., Kravchenko, R. A., Gorbanenko, S. A., Gorobets, L. V., Kovalchuk, O. M., Seniuk, O. H., Serhieieva, M. S. 2017. Sverdlovske 1: biohospodarska diialnist meshkantsiv romenskoho horodyshcha na Chernihivshchyni. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1 (22), s. 266-301.
Yazhdzhevskiy, K. 1988. O znachenii vozdelyvayemoy rzhi v kulturakh zheleznogo veka v basseynakh Odry i Visly. In: Timoshchuk, B. A. (ed.). Drevnosti slavyan i Rusi. Moskva: Nauka, s. 98-99.
Gorbaněnko, S. A. 2017. Archeobotanické nálezy kultury pražského typu z Ukrajiny. Archeologické rozhledy, LXIX, 3, p. 461-475.
Henning, J. 1987. Südosteuropa zwischen Antike und Mittelalter. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. Archäologische Beiträge zur Landwirtschaft des 1. Jahrtausends u. Z., Schriften zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte, 42.
Lange, E. 1975. The development of agriculture during the first millennium AD. Geologіska Förenіngens і Stockholm Förhandlіngar, 97, p. 115-124.

Abstract views: 45
PDF Downloads: 79
Published
2018-03-25
How to Cite
Gorbanenko, S. A. (2018). COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE EVE OF THE FORMATION OF OLD RUS’. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 26(1), 301-320. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2018.01.20