ON THE BORDER OF THE STEPPE.THE SOUTHERN HILLFORT GROUP OF THE SCYTHIAN TIME OF THE DNIPRO-DONETSK FOREST-STEPPE


  • O. O. Kriutchenko Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: the Siversky Donets group of monuments, Scythian time, hillforts, settlements, burial fields, the settlement structure

Abstract

The structure of the fortified settlements enlargemented on the territory of the Dnipro-Don forest-steppe, starting from the middle-second half of the VI century BC. According to the results of the investigation of the Bilsk hillfort, the Perekipsky shaft in the Kharkiv region and settlements along the Muravsky path, we suggest that the functions of these fortifications were much wider than the protection of the inhabitants of the surrounding settlements. In this article we summarize the results of the investigation of the settlement group and burial fields that are located on the border of the steppe.

A developed system of the open settlements with ashes, which formed the separate groups, so-called bushes, appeared in this region in the Middle Scythian period. That were located in the upper reaches of small tides, among the ramified system of ravines near the watershed. The choice of that place was due to the convenient location for farming, in places free from the forest. At the same time there appered the first hillfort in the region — Chervonosivske.

A synchronous and concentrated system of stationary settlements were located around this hillfort. The hillfort had the simple defensive structure (protected by a shaft and a moat from the one side of the field). The Taranivske and Velykohomilshansky hillforts with the bushes of the open settlements appered in the V century BC. Likely, all settlements, except Korobovy Khutory were built in the Middle Scythian time. The site of these ancient settlements is protected along the perimeter with one line of fortifications. The number of settlements along the Muravsky path drastically decreased, in the Late Scythian time. The new settlements appered in the middle flows of tributaries (Novoselivka) and in floodplains of large river systems. As an question — the functioning of Chervonosovsky, Taranivsky and Velykohomilshansky hillforts in the IV century BC. The well-fortified hillfort Korobovy Khutory appeared in the final of V century BC. on the cape near the Siversky Donets.The traces of seasonal stands are recorded in the floodplain. The process proceeds in parallel with the infiltration in the steppe nomads in this region.

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Published
2018-06-25
How to Cite
Kriutchenko, O. O. (2018). ON THE BORDER OF THE STEPPE.THE SOUTHERN HILLFORT GROUP OF THE SCYTHIAN TIME OF THE DNIPRO-DONETSK FOREST-STEPPE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 27(2), 64-76. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2018.02.04