REPEATED RESEARCH OF THE SCYTHIAN ROYAL ALEKSANDROPOLSKY KURGAN IN 2004—2009


  • S. V. Polin Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • M. N. Daragan Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: Scythian royal kurgan, amphoras, amphoras stamps, Skythia, Northern Black Sea Coast.

Abstract

After excavation of the Aleksandropolsky kurgan in 1852—1856 there was variety of questions on the kurgan design, lo-age structure buried in it, on possible presence in the kurgan of unknown tombs and funeral feasts. The special attention was deserved by a question on kurgan dating at modern level. According to excavation 1852—1856 and 2004—2009 the Aleksandropolsky kurgan looks as follows.

Proceeding from volume of the remained sailings from excavation of the kurgan about 130000 m3, most probable height of Aleksandropolsky kurgan made 23—24 m, at diameter of the revetment about 80 m and diameter of a ditch of 110 m. The kurgan surface has been covered by a stone armour. At top of Aleksandropolsky kurgan there was Scythian or Polovcian a stone statue with which finds of a series of medieval products in 1852 and 2009 are connected. The kurgan surrounded an eartwork in height of 0.9—1.1 m, wich has passes from the western and east parties in width of 3.6—4.1 m. The eartwork had width from 6,5 m to 18—20 m. The eartwork has been built after carrying out of funeral feasts and blocked the layer of funeral feasts. Between eartwork and kurgan there was a ring ditch in diameter of 110 m, in the width 4.0—5.7 m and depth of 2.2—3.3 m. Stone revetment of Aleksandropolsky kurgan represented a vertical wall in height more than 4 m and diameter about 80 m, combined of huge stone plates. For building of the revetment 11 breeds of a stone have been used from the various deposits located 40—80 km from the kurgan on a straight line or from 80 to 160 km of real distances on roads. After end of funeral of royal persons, building of the embankment of Aleksandropolsky kurgan, building of the revetment around of it and the stone armour which has covered all surface of the kurgan, funeral feast near West side of the kurgan has been spent. On the area nearby 120 Ч 15 m (nearby 1800 м2) are found fragments of 457 Ancient Greek amphoras with 52 stamps, made in Gerakleja, Ikos, Chersonese, Fasos, Chios, Sinop, Menda and seven others for the present non-local Greek centers dated of 340—330 BC. Also bones of 99 animals eaten during funeral feast (bulls, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, pigs, a hare and a deer), fragments of Scythian modelled vessels, subjects of arms, a horse bridle, personal ornaments etc. are found. Some fragments of human bones that can testify to existence ritual cannibalism at Scythians. Among the funeral feast rests 11 burials of men, the woman and children of different age, which have been killed during funeral feast have been opened. Repeated excavation of Central tomb of the kurgan has allowed to specify its sizes and details of a design which had a bit different sizes and a configuration. Absence of lateral extortionate courses along longitudinal walls of the catacomb of Central tomb is reliably established. Also two more niches within the precincts of chamber, except one, opened in 1855 have been found. Modest enough sizes of the catacomb of Central tomb of Aleksandropolsky kurgan, structure of the things found here, defines possibility of funeral in the catacomb of the Central tomb of the man and the woman only. According to the newest anthropological definitions of skulls from the Central tomb belong to the woman of 20—35 years and the man at the age of more than 50 years. Proofs of full synchronism of all tombs and other objects of Aleksandropolsky kurgan (embankment, the revetment, ditch, nearkurgan funeral feast, subways) are received. Mysterious subways of Aleksandropolsky kurgan had ritual appointment. The kurgan has been plundered through a vertical well from kurgan top in an entrance hole of the Central tomb. At this robbery robbers used also subways.

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Published
2018-06-22
How to Cite
Polin, S. V., & Daragan, M. N. (2018). REPEATED RESEARCH OF THE SCYTHIAN ROYAL ALEKSANDROPOLSKY KURGAN IN 2004—2009. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 27(2), 335-351. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2018.02.24