CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGES OF THE THIRD QUARTER OF THE 15th CENTURY FROM THE FUNA CASTLE: UTENSILS OF THE «GARRISON KITCHEN»


Keywords: Crimea, Funa castle, 15th century, ceramic assemblage, chronology.

Abstract

The Funa fortress is located in southern Crimea and is one of the reference architectural and archaeological complexes of the Northern Pontic Region with precise date of existence.

The fortress was built by Mangup authorities near 1423 on the border with possessions of Genoese and was destroyed in a fire during the Turkish invasion of the Crimea in 1475. The detailed chronology of the site which includes three stages of its construction history — 1423, 1425—1450s and 1459—1475, has been developed so far. So it becomes possible to clarify the dating of ceramic finds in line with these periods also.

Ceramic assemblages of the last stage from the layers of fire and destruction of 1475 are the most representative. There is the complex from courtyard 1 among them.

The ceramic collection includes 101 and 163 fully or partially reconstructed vessels respectively. There are large and average household containers, various kitchen utensils and tableware, both of the local Crimean production and import (Miletus Ware, Spanish Luster and Blue and White Ware, Fritware). The comparative analysis of artefacts made it possible to establish the chronological changes in ceramic assemblages during 25 years.

Moreover, statistical and typological studies of the pottery from the layer of fire demonstrated a set of vessels there is suitable for cooking and table setting for at least 40 people. Large number of luxury tableware for diverse using and their location in the context allow suggest that there was a large feast on the platform above the «kitchen», and the remains of this banquet were not removed. According to the archaeological evidence as well as analysis of historical events the inhabitants of the fortress could burn it themselves before Turkish invasion and retreat to the capital of the principality at Mangup. Perhaps the remains of a farewell feast arranged just before leaving was fixed archaeologically.

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2020-03-01
How to Cite
Teslenko, I. B. (2020). CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGES OF THE THIRD QUARTER OF THE 15th CENTURY FROM THE FUNA CASTLE: UTENSILS OF THE «GARRISON KITCHEN». Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 34(1), 31-67. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.01.04