THE MODELLING OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF 11th—13th CENTURIES. BASING ON THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES REMAINS OF TEREBOVLYA PRINCEDOM


Keywords: settlements, the index of the nearest neighborhood, reconstruction of landscapes, settlement structure, Terebovlya princedom.

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to construct the model reconstructing the settlement structure inside the border of the Terebovlya princedom. The different types of archaeological sites since 10th till 13th cent. have been analyzed. These 710 sites are the source for researching the region’s settlement structure and the reconstruction of the settlements is based on it. Soil coverings are analyzed and landscape types are reconstructed based on soil types. These tasks were realized by implementing the GIS «The Settlements of The Terebovlya Princedom».

The analysis of mapped archaeological sites has revealed the several aspects in the terms of existence. In particular the process of construction of new fortified settlements was intensified at the end of the 10th cent. We can reliably associate this process with the inclusion of the region in the area of influence of the Old Rus state. Increase of the number of fortresses in the 11th cent. marks the establishment of the Terebovlya Princedom as an administrative unit of the Galician Land.

The analysis of the sites existed during the 12th—13th cent. is testified to the tendency of the massive growth of fortified and especially, non-fortified rural settlements. This tendency is common to most regions of Old Rus state during that period. The number of new fortified settlements increased in 1.5 times, the number of new rural settlements — in 7.4 times.

But what is particularly different is the lacuna in chronology of settlements dating by 10th—13th cent. Mostly, these sites do not contain layers of 11th century. This fact may be the archaeological proof of the conquests of Prince Volodymyr at the end of the 10th century in the region of Middle Dniester.

Two stages of existence of the settlements reconstructed from archaeological sites are considered. At the early stage of functioning (11th cent.) there is a concentration of settlements in the northern part of the princedom, around the centers of social life traditionally, from the early periods (Krutyliv I, Bohit, Postolivka I). The chronology and the social role of these centers is the question which should be detailed.

A two-stage cluster analysis, conducted for the ancient settlements revealed such degree of neighborhood: for the settlements of 11th cent. the average nearest neighbor index is about 6.9 km and for the settlements of 12th—13th cent. this number is about 2.7 km.

The economic aspect of the settlement structure is shown through using of soils and landscapes by ancient society. The reconstructed landscapes based on the soil cover, shows us a dominance of deciduous (leaved) and meadow-steppe areas on this territory. And among the reconstructed deciduous landscapes, the percentage of ancient forests reached 65 % in the Middle Ages. At the first look the ancient settlements were located on the borders of landscapes, in ecotones, which indirectly, can confirm the mixed type of management (farming).

The necessary baseline and supplementary data were prepared for the reconstruction of the paleo-economy during the process of modeling the settlements structure of the region and will form the basis for further research.

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2020-05-28
How to Cite
ManigdaO. V. (2020). THE MODELLING OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF 11th—13th CENTURIES. BASING ON THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES REMAINS OF TEREBOVLYA PRINCEDOM. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 35(2), 33-57. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.02.01