SLAVIC «COOK ROOMS» FROM THE SETTLEMENT ROVANTSI — HNIDAVSKA HIRKA IN VOLYN
In 2009 during the excavations at the multi-layered settlement of Rovantsi — Hnidavska Hirka near Lutsk in the excavation area 10 the dwellings and household buildings of the Slavic period have been discovered. To the horizon of the tenth century three houses and the building with three earth ovens were attributed. The stratigraphy of the filling of this building (object 3) indicates that the earth ovens were not operating at the same time. Three successive horizons are observed in this structure. The first site was a grain pit which was discovered at the bottom of the building. This pit was covered by two rammed floors, sagged into it. The analysis of ceramics made it possible to connect one house (object 18) with the first horizon of object 3 and the other house (object 16) with the third horizon of object 3. In the ovens of these houses there were fragments of pots, glued to the fragments of pots from the corresponding horizons of object 3. This building is interpreted as the room for cooking. The horizon of the 12th — the first half of the 13th century includes the structure with two clay ovens, pit-cellar, small rectangular building and the ditch that surrounded these objects. This ditch was obviously the part of fence, and the gap in it was the pass. The complex of this ditch also includes two ground fires, located in the pass in one line with the ditch. It has been suggested that the building with large clay oven which was discovered in 2010 in a nearby excavation 12 (object 12 / Ex. 12), is the same cook room. Obviously, it reflects certain stage in development of such buildings, namely the stop of the use of fast-destroying earth ovens and the transition to the construction of large clay ovens. This is evidenced by the following facts: this building is different in shape from all other houses of the 10th century; it is located at the site of the previous building with earth oven; the oven in it had too large sizes relative to other ovens from the houses of the 10th century. The results of the excavations at Hnidavka Hirka help to reject the version that such structures were the manufactories and to consider them not «mini-factories-bakeries» but only the kitchens with one oven in each individual farm.
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