«ORIENTAL APHRODITE» ON THE OBJECTS FROM TERRITORY OF SCYTHIA (on the origins of iconography)


Keywords: pendants, punch, Kamianske settlement, «Hathoric wig», iconography, «Oriental Aphrodite», Argimpasa.

Abstract

The article analyzes the origins of the iconography of a woman’s face with a hairstyle that has characteristic curls, which have been deployed in different directions, on the objects of Scythian material culture. This feature of iconography is fixed twice. The first case are four silver and gilded pendants from the barrow 34 near the village Sofiyivka, Kherson region (Museum of Historical Treasures of Ukraine — a branch of the National Museum of History of Ukraine, inv. no. 2755/1—4). The second case, is the image on the working part of a bronze stamp from the Kamyanskoe settlement (Archaeology Museum of the Karazin National University of Kharkiv, inv. no. VN 2089). As for the female hairstyle on these images, it is not typical for classical Hellenic art, but finds parallels in the art of the Eastern Mediterranean and Ancient East. This style is similar to the so-called «Hathoric wig» in the art of ancient Egypt (on stelae, sculptures, amulets, painting on coffins, mirrors, musical instruments, etc.), which influenced the iconography of the hairstyles of female deities («Oriental Aphrodite») of the Mediterranean. The image of the goddess in the «Hathoric wig» could permeate to the Northern Pontic Sea Region through the Hellenic craftsmen, as a replica of the image of «Oriental Aphrodite» cult of whom may have existed in the region. At the same time, these images could be a «copy» (imitation) made by the Scythian craftsmen directly from the Egyptian original, most likely from some faience amulet, which usually has similar size and sometimes reproduces the head of Hathor. According to Herodotus, in the Scythian pantheon, the figure of Celestial Aphrodite (Aphrodite Urania) was corresponded by Argimpasa (Herod. IV, 59). Consequently, in such an iconographic form these images could depict this goddess. The image of the «Hathoric wig» on these objects can be considered the most northern examples of this iconographic
element.

References

Belozor, V. P., Tarasenko, N. A. 2003. Drevnevostochnyye motivy skifskogo yuvelirnogo ukrasheniya. Vіsnyk Kyivs’kogo Slavіstichnogo unіversitetu, 15: Іstorіya, s. 45-52.
Bessonova, S. S. 1983. Religioznyye predstavleniya skifov. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Boltryk, Yu. V., Lifantiy, O. V. 2016. Vyhotovlennya zolotykh aplikatsiy kostyuma v Skifiyi (puanson z Kam’yans’koho horodyshcha). In: Marina, Z. P. (ed.). Arkheolohiya ta etnolohiya pivdnya Skhidnoyi Evropy. Dnipro: Lira, s. 217-227.
Vertiienko, A. V., Tarasenko, N. A. 2014. Skarabey v kontekste pohrebal’noho obryada skyfo-sarmatskykh plemen (na materyalakh nekropolya Ylurata). Muzeyni Chytannya. Materialy naukovoyi konferentsiyi «Yuvelirne mystetstvo: pohlyad kriz’ viky», 18—20 lystopada 2013 r., s. 170-178.
Vertiienko, H. V., Tarasenko, M. O. 2018. Rytual’na rich u kros-kul’turnykh kontaktakh skifo-sarmats’kykh plemen ta narodiv Blyz’koho Skhodu. In: Forum Olbicum II: Pam’yati V. V. Krapivinoyi (do 150-richchya doslidzhennya Ol’viyi). Materialy mizhnarodnoyi arkheolohichnoyi konferentsiyi, 4—6 travnya 2018 r. Mykolayiv. Mykolayiv, s. 113-114.
Grakov, B. N. 1954. Kamenskoye gorodishche na Dnepre. Moskva: AN SSSR. Materialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii SSSR, 36.
Klochko, L. S. 2014. Nashyyni prykrasy skif»yanok (lantsyuzhky z okremykh elementiv). Muzeyni chytannya. Materialy naukovoyi konferentsiyi «Yuvelirne mystetstvo — pohlyad kriz’ viky», 18—20 lystopada 2013 r., s. 109-129.
Kobylina, M. M. 1978. Izobrazheniya vostochnykh bozhestv v Severnom Prichernomor’ye v pervyye veka n. e. Moskva: Nauka.
Kobylina, M. M. 1984. Religiya i kul’ty. In: Koshelenko, G. A., Kruglikova, I. T., Dolgorukova, V. S. (ed.). Antichnyye gosudarstva Severnogo Prichernomorya. Moskva: Nauka, s. 211-225.
Leskov, A. M., Rumyantsev, A. N., Boldin, Ya. I., Chekamova, G. I., Yastrebova, S. B., Zarayskaya, N. P., Shilov, Yu. A., Shilova, T. P., Kubyshev, A. I., Il’inskaya, V. A. 1972. Otchet o rabote KHersonskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii v 1972 g. NA ІA NANU, f. 64, 1972/35.
Rusyayeva, A. S. 2005. Religiya pontiyskikh ellinov v antichnuyu epokhu. Kiev: Stilos.
Tarasenko, M. O. 2019. Kryshka sarkofahu yehypets’koyi zhrytsi XXV dynastiyi (NKPIKZ KPL-Arkh-829). Shodoznavstvo, 83, s. 69-100.
Treister, M. Yu. 2015. Sinkreticheskiye zhenskiye bozhestva na yuvelirnykh izdeliyakh iz Fanagorii i Gorgippii pervykh vekov n. e. i nekotoryye nablyudeniya ob ikonografii Afrodity Uranii na Bospore. Problemy istorii, filologii, kul’tury, 1 (47), s. 308-337.
Shramko, B. A. 1970. Ob izgotovlenii zolotykh ukrasheniy remeslennikami Skifii. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 2, s. 217-221.
Alexandrescu Vianu, M. 1997. Aphrodites orientales dans le bassin du Pont-Euxin. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellйnique, 121, p. 15-32.
Barrett, C. E. 2011. Egyptianizing Figurines from Delos. A Study in Hellenistic Religion. Leiden; Boston: Brill.
Bleeker, C. J. 1973. Hathor and Thoth. Leiden: Brill.
Bonnet, H. 1952. Reallexikon der дgyptischen Religionsgeschichte. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Capel, A. K., Markoe, G. E. (ed.). 1996. Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven. Women in Ancient Egypt. New York: Hudson Hills.
Daumas, F. 1977. Hathor. In: Helck, W., Westendorf, W. (ed.). Lexikon der Дgyptologie. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, II: Kol. 1024—1033.
Herrmann, Chr. 2003. Die дgyptischen Amulette der Sammlungen Bibel + Orient der Unversitдt Freiburg Scweiz. Freiburg; Gцttingen: Universitдtsverlag, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 22.
Herrmann, Chr. 2016. Дgyptische Amulette aus Palдstina / Israel. Freiburg; Gцttingen: Universitдtsverlag, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht, IV: Von der Spдtbronzezeit IIB bis in rцmische Zeit. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 38.
Hodjash, S. 2001. Ancient Egyptian Jewellery. Catalogue of beads, pectorals, aegises, nets for mummies, finger-rings, earrings, bracelets from Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts. Moscow: Nauka.
Giveon, R. 1987. The Impact of Egypt on Canaan: Iconographical and Related Studies. Freiburg; Gцttingen: Universitдtsverlag, Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, 20.
Grewenig, M. M. (ed.). 2014. Gцtter. Menschen. Pharaonen. Дgypten Meisterwerke aus dem Museum Egizio Turin. Heidelberg: Das Wunderhorn.
Leitz, Chr. (ed.). 2002. Lexikon der дgyptischen Gцtter und Gцtterbezeichnungen. Leuven; Paris; Dudley MA, V. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 114
Marshall, F. H. 1911. Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, in the Departments of Antiquities, British Museum. London: British Museum.
Reali, C. 2017. Egyptian-Levantine cultural contacts: considerations about the iconography of female deities on the sealings from Avaris and cultural diversities. Claroscuro. Revista del Centro de Estudios sobre Diversidad Cultural, 16, p. 1-51.
Reisner, G. A. 1907. Amulets. Catalogue Gйnйral des Antiquitйs Йgyptienns du Musйe de Caire. Nos. 5218—6000 et 12001—12527. Le Caire: Institut Franзais d’Archйologie Orientale.
Saleh, M., Sourouzian, H. (ed.). 1987. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Official Catalogue. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.
Shenkar, M. 2015. Intangible Spirits and Graven Images: The Iconography of Deities in the Pre-Islamic Iranian World. Leiden: Brill.
Schramko, B. A. 1974. Zur Frage ьber die Technik und die Bearbeitungszentren von Buntmetallen in der Frьheisenzeit. In: Symposium zu Problem der jungeren Hallastattzeit in Mitteleuropa, 25—29 Sept. 1970. Smolenice; Bratislava, S. 469-489.
Sourouzian, H. 1981. Une tкte de 1a reine Touy а Gourna. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archдologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, 37, p. 445-455.
Ustinova, Yu. 1999. The Supreme Gods of the Bosporan Kingdom. Celestial Aphrodite and the Most High God. Leiden: Brill.

Abstract views: 101
PDF Downloads: 115
Published
2019-12-25
How to Cite
Vertiienko, H. V. (2019). «ORIENTAL APHRODITE» ON THE OBJECTS FROM TERRITORY OF SCYTHIA (on the origins of iconography). Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 33(4), 340-347. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.04.25