EXPLORATION OF THE OLD RUS’ RURAL CRAFT AND LIVING SETTLEMENTS IN KYIV REGION ON THE RIGHT BANK OF DNIEPER
In 2017 the archaeological exploration in the zone of construction of the transmission line in the Makariv district of Kyiv region took place. Three sites — Nalyvaikivka 1 (second half of the 10th — 11th, 12th—13th centuries), Farm 2 (2nd—1st millennium BC) and Farm 3 (11th century) were excavated. The total area of excavation was 165 m2.
The settlement Nalyvaykivka 1 is located in the area with high wetlands and had the necessary conditions for the extraction of iron and forestry — extraction of tar, charcoal and harvesting. The site Nalivaykivka 1 was the Medieval industrial rural settlements.
The site Nalyvaykivka 1 contains a lot of artifacts related to iron production. They represent the different stages of the metallurgical process. Fragments of furnace for iron production have been found. The specific design of the metallurgical furnace was ascertained.
The location near ore deposits (the iron-mining center in the Kolonshchyna region) and near the powerful product market (Kyiv) led to the craft character of the settlement. Probably it was part of the group of settlements pecialized in the production and primary processing of iron.
The materials of the Ferma 3 settlement confirm the high economic level of the rural district of Kyiv region in comparison with the material culture of the Old Rus cities. There were no any archaeological objects excavated at the settlement. But in the cultural layer the interesting finds were recorded: the bi-conical shape whorl made of pink shale; the small iron knife with a straight back, the blade separated from the shank ledge; the anvil (?) will slip; the iron arrowhead with broken edge; iron bits; bronze vessel; metallurgical slag; shale fragment of pink; iron awl. The presence of Byzantine amphorae, glass bracelets, bronze vessels, items of military or hunting equipment testifies to the active trade and craft relations of rural and urban population of Kyiv Rus.
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