ON THE STUDIES OF THE ZOOMORPHIC IMAGES REPERTOIRE IN THE ART OF INKARDARIA SAKAS


Keywords: Eastern Aral Sea region, Uygarak, Southern Tagisken, Saka epoch, zoomorphic images, animal style.

Abstract

The article is devoted to zoomorphic images analysis received from the Saka sites of the Eastern Aral Sea region — Uygarak (VII—VI cc. BC) and South Tagisken (VII—V cc. BC). The images were studied by the Khorezm archaeological and ethnographic expedition under the guidance of S. P. Tolstov. This material has been due to the fact that now there is an update of the source base of the studies of art objects belonging to the Saka time in the archaeology of the early Iron Age of Kazakhstan.

At present the materials on Uygarak and South Tagisken are still among the sites with a large series of excavated mounds, both in the region and in Kazakhstan. Almost completely excavated burial grounds of the early Iron Age containing a large number of objects in Kazakhstan archaeology are single.

The analysis of the material on Uygarak and Tagisken depicts that objects with zoomorphic decor were found in every burial. In percentage this makes 21 % in Uygarak and 18 % in Tagisken. According to the archaeologists O. A. Vishnevskaya, M. A. Itina, L. T. Yablonsky, who studied the monuments, the mounds were robbed by contemporaries. Consequently, conducting an objective analysis is difficult, but a trial to trace the dynamics of the emergence of objects created in zoomorphic style seems extremely interesting. There is a high probability that a small number of objects with preserved works of ancient art marks complexes belonging to the steppe aristocracy.

Among zoomorphic images, the most common were birds and cat predators. There are objects in the shape of saigas and horses. Images of bears, wolves, deer, argali, wild boars, camels are quite rare. It is worth noting that bird images have never been found in Tagisken materials, and not a single horse and saiga image has been recorded in Uygarak. At the same time, the majority of zoomorphically decorated items are parts of horse equipment.

References

Bazarbaeva, G. A., Jumabekova, G. S. (ed.). 2017. Kultura naseleniya Turgaya i sopredelnyh regionov: chelovek i epoha. Almaty: A. Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology.
Baipakov, K. M., Voyakin, D. A., Zaharov, S. V. 2016. Mogilnik Karatuma. Nekropol rannego zheleznogo veka v Semireche. Almaty: Arheologicheskaya ehkspertiza.
Baitanayev, B. A. 2013. Zolotye diski mogilnika Kaitpas. In: Arheologiya Kazahstana: itogi i perspektivy: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii (Almaty, 5 dekabrya 2013). Almaty: Gylym ordasy, s. 88-89.
Baitanayev, B. A. 2019. Kurgan Urdzhar: istoriya otkrytiya i nekotorye itogi issledovaniya. Arheologiya Kazahstana, 2 (4), s. 9-22.
Barkova, L. L. 1999. Konskaya maska iz Pervogo Pazyrykskogo kurgana. Arheologicheskii sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 34, s. 97-101.
Beisenov, A. Z. 2001. Drevnyaya Syrdariya i Saryarka. In: Dostizheniya i perspektivy arheologicheskoi nauki nezavisimogo Kazahstana: trudy mezhdunarodnyh Margulanovskih chtenii, posvyashchennyh 10-letiyu nezavisimosti Respubliki Kazahstan. Kyzylorda, s. 139-143.
Beisenov, A. Z. 2015. Poseleniya i mogilniki sakskoi epohi Centralnogo Kazahstana. In: Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). Sakskaya kultura Saryarki v kontekste izucheniya etnosociokulturnyh processov stepnoi Evrazii: sbornik nauchnyh statei, posvyashchennyi pamyati arheologa K. A. Akisheva. Karagandy: Begazy-Tasmola, s. 7-34.
Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). 2017. Kazakhstan v sakskuyu epohu: kollektivnaya monografiya. Almaty: A. Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology.
Beisenov, A. Z. 2018. Tasmolinskaya kultura Centralnogo Kazahstana v issledovaniyah nachala XXI veka. Arheologiya i davnya istoriya Ukrainy, 2 (27), s. 386-396.
Beisenov, A. Z. 2019. K. A. Akishev i voprosy izucheniya pamyatnikov kazahskogo vremeni. Margulanovskie chteniya 2019: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii, posvyashchennoi 95-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya vydayushchegosya kazahstanskogo arheologa K.A. Akisheva (Nur-Sultan, 19—20 aprelya 2019), s. 10-38.
Beisenov, A. Z., Ismagulova, A. O. 2007. Arheologo-antropologicheskie dannye iz mogilnika Edirei 3. In: Loman, V. G. (ed.). Istoriko-kulturnoe nasledie Saryarki: sbornik nauchnyh statei. Karaganda: KGU, s. 164-171.
Beisenov, A. Z., Jumabekova, G. S., Bazarbayeva, G. A., Duisenbay, D. B., Akhiyarov, I. K. 2017a. Vihrevye kompozicii v iskusstve sakov Centralnogo Kazahstana. Arheologіya і davnya іstorіya Ukrainy, 2 (23), s. 40-58.
Beisenov, A. Z., Jumabekova, G. S., Bazarbaeyva, G. A., Duisenbay, D. B. 2017b. Zoomorfnyi dekor futlyara iz kurgana rannesakskogo vremeni (Centralnyi Kazahstan). Kratkie soobshcheniya Instituta arheologii, 248, s. 134-148.
Bisembaev, A. A., Havanskii, A. I., Akhatov, G. A., Duisengali, M. N., Mamedov, A. M., Bidagulov, N. T., Urazova, A. B., Amelin, V. A., Bairov, N. M. 2019. Raboty poslednih let na pamyatnikah rannih kochevnikov Ilekskogo mikroraiona (predvaritelnye itogi). Arheologiya Kazahstana, 1 (3), s. 99-115.
Boltrik, Yu. V. 2004. Sotsialnaya struktura Skifii IV v. do R. H., otrazhennaya v pogrebalnykh pamyatnikakh. In: Chochorowski, J. (ed.). Kimmerowe. Scytowie. Sarmaci. Księga poświęcona pamieci prof. T. Sulimirskiego. Krakow: Ksiegarnia Akademicka, s. 85-91.
Boltrik, Yu. V. 2011. Kurgany pravitelei Evropeiskoi Skifii (ot vremeni Gerodota do «zolotoi oseni»). In: Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). Sakskaya kultura Saryarki v kontekste izucheniya etnosociokulturnyh processov stepnoi Evrazii: tezisy dokladov Kruglogo stola, posvyashchennogo 20-letiyu nezavisimosti Respubliki Kazahstan. Karagandy: Begazy-Tasmola, s. 103-106.
Boltrik, Yu. V. 2015. Elitnye kurgany kak markery territorialnoi struktury Skifii. In: Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). Sakskaya kultura Saryarki v kontekste izucheniya etnosociokulturnyh processov stepnoi Evrazii: sbornik nauchnyh statei, posvyashchennyi pamyati arheologa K. A. Akisheva. Almaty: Begazy-Tasmola, s. 77-83.
Vishnevskaya, O. A. 1973. Kultura sakskih plemen nizovev Syrdari v VII—V vv. do n. e. Trudy Horezmskoi arheologo-ehtnograficheskoi ekspedicii. Moskva: Nauka, VIII.
Itina, M. A., Yablonskii, L. T. 1997. Saki Nizhnei Syrdari (po materialam mogilnika Yuzhnyi Tagisken). Moskva: Rossiiskaya politicheskaya ehnciklopediya.
Kantorovich, A. R. 2018. Obrazno-syuzhetnyi repertuar vostochno-evropeiskogo skifskogo zverinogo stilya: principy i rezultaty klassificirovaniya i kodirovaniya. In: Sinika, V. S., Rabinovich, R. A. (ed.). Drevnosti. Issledovaniya. Problemy: sbornik statei v chest 70-letiya N. P. Telnova. Kishinev; Tiraspol, s. 195-222. Biblioteka Stratum
Korolkova, E. F. 2009. Znakovaya sistema, priemy kompozicii i nekotorye ustoichivye motivy v iskusstve zverinogo stilya (zoomorfnye svastiki i vihrevye rozetki). Nizhnevolzhskii arheologicheskii sbornik, 10, s. 64-72.
Kurmankulov, J., Utubaev, J. R. 2017. Chirikrabatskaya kultura Vostochnogo Priaralya. In: Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). Kazakhstan v sakskuyu epohu: kollektivnaya monografiya. Almaty: A. Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology, s. 191-210.
Lukpanova, Ya. A. 2018. Zhenshchina, siyayushchaya zolotom vechnosti. In: Ongaruly, A., Pak, T. (ed.). Zoloto vlastelinov kazahskih stepei: sovmestnyi katalog Respubliki Koreya i Respubliki Kazahstan. Tedzhon: Nacionalnyi nauchno-issledovatelskii institut kulturnogo naslediya Respubliki Koreya, s. 132-154.
Margulan, A. 1946. O haraktere i istoricheskoi obuslovlennosti kazahskogo eposa. Izvestiya Kazahskij filial Akademii nauk SSSR. Seriia istoricheskaia, 2 (27), s. 75-81.
Murzin, V. Yu. 2019. Aleksei Ivanovich Terenozhkin — osnovatel kievskoi shkoly skifovedeniya. Margulanovskie chteniya 2019: materialy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferencii, posvyashchennoi 95-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya vydayushchegosya kazahstanskogo arheologa K. A. Akisheva (Nur-Sultan, 19—20 aprelya 2019), s. 39-46.
Omarov, G. K. 2014. Shygys Kazakhstannyn erte temir dauiri (Rannii zheleznyi vek Vostochnogo Kazahstana. Almaty: Kazakh Universiteti.
Podushkin, A. N. 2018. Arheologicheskie raboty na gorodishche Kultobe arysskom, mogilnikah Kultobe i Kylyshzhar v 2016—2017 gg. Arheologiya Kazahstana, 1—2, s. 245-258.
Polidovich, Yu. B. 2015. Izobrazheniya gornogo kozla v sakskom iskusstve arhaichnogo perioda. In: Beisenov, A. Z. (ed.). Sakskaya kultura Saryarki v kontekste izucheniya etnosociokulturnyh processov stepnoi Evrazii: sbornik nauchnyh statei, posvyashchennyi pamyati arheologa K. A. Akisheva. Karagandy: Begazy-Tasmola, s. 215-230.
Ryabkova, T. V. 2011. Izobrazheniya rombovidnyh znakov kak svidetelstvo migracii v epohu rannih kochevnikov. Margulanovskie chteniya 2011: materialy mezhdunarodnoi konferencii (Astana, 20—22 aprelya 2011), s. 104-109.
Samashev, Z. 2011. Berel. Almaty: Taymas.
Samashev, Z., Ongar, A., Chotbayev, A., Nuskabay, A., Kairmagambetov, A., Kiyasbek, G., Kyzyrkhanov, M. 2018. Kultura rannih sakov Tarbagataya (Nachalo kompleksnyh issledovanii pogrebalno-pominalnyh pamyatnikov na Eleke sazy v verhovyah r. Kargyba). In: Akhmetov, D. (ed.). Altay — turki aleminin altyn besigi (Altay — zolotaya kolybel tyurkskogo mira). Ust-Kamenogorsk: Akimat Vostochno-Kazahstanskoj oblasti, s. 8-14.
Samashev, Z., Chotbayev, A., Kariev, E., Kiyasbek, G., Samashev, S., Akhmadiev, Zh. 2018. Berel v istorii kultury drevnih kochevnikov Kazahskogo Altaya. Astana: Foliant.
Skory, S. A., Saenko, V. N. 2017. K 110-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya professora Alekseya Ivanovicha Terenozhkina. Arheologiya i davnya istoriya Ukrainy, 2 (23), s. 8-19.
Smirnov, N. Yu. 2004. «Pletenyi uzel» ranneskifskoi kultury (ornamentalnyi motiv v kontekste kulturogeneza). In: Savinov, D. G. (ed.). Izobrazitelnye pamyatniki: stil, epoha, kompozicii: materialy tematicheskoi nauchnoi konferencii (Sankt-Peterburg, 1—4 dekabrya 2004). Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGU, s. 290-294.
Tajekeev, A. A. 2011. Istoriya osvoeniya Yugo-Vostochnogo Priaralya s drevneishih vremen do konca 1 tysyacheletiya do n. e. Avtoreferat dissertacii k. i. n. Moskva: Institut ehtnologii i antropologii im. N. N. Mikluho-Maklaya.
Toleubaev, A. T. 2018. Rannesakskaya shiliktinskaya kultura. Almaty: Kazahskii nacionalnyi universitet imeni al Farabi.
Utubaev, J. R. 2018. Osedlo-zemledelcheskaya kultura Vostochnogo Priaralya (vtoraya polovina I tys. do n. e.). Avtoreferat dissertacii k. i. n. Kemerovo: Kemerovskii gosudarstvennyi universitet.
Chernikov, S. S. 1965. Zagadka Zolotogo kurgana. Gde i kogda zarodilos «skifskoe iskusstvo». Moskva: Nauka.
Chotbayev, A., Ongar, A., Kiyasbek, G., Rakhmankulov, E., Kozhakhmetov, B., Besetayev, B. B. 2012. Nachalo issledovaniya na Katartobe. Trudy filiala Instituta arheologii im. A. Kh. Margulana v g. Astana, 1, s. 118-125.
Beisenov, A. 2013. Die nekropole Taldy 2 in beziehung zu den kulturen der fruhsakishen zeit osteurasiens. In: Stцllner, T., Samasev, Z. (ed.). Unbekanntes Kasachstan. Archaolоgie im Herzen Asiens: Katalog zur Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum. Bochum, II, S. 596-608.

Abstract views: 72
PDF Downloads: 110
Published
2019-12-25
How to Cite
Jumabekova, G. S., & Bazarbaeva, G. A. (2019). ON THE STUDIES OF THE ZOOMORPHIC IMAGES REPERTOIRE IN THE ART OF INKARDARIA SAKAS. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 33(4), 348-356. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.04.26