BYZANTINE GLAZED CERAMICS OF THE 13th CENTURY IN THE CRIMEA (short review)


Keywords: Byzantium, Crimea, glazed ceramics, trade, 13th century.

Abstract

Despite political and military upheaval in Byzantium in the 13th century, the most important of which were the conquest of Constantinople and the central territories of the empire by the Latins in 1204, and then the restoration of the state and the return of the capital by Michael VIII Palaeologus in 1261, the manufacture of marketable glazed tableware on its historical territory had not stopped. Moreover, delivery of this ceramic into the territory of the Crimea also continued. This was largely due to the new owners of the maritime market — Italian merchants, first Venetians, and then Genoese, who were active participants of the political and military conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean and Byzantium. At the same time, the composition of the imported ceramic was not stable. Finds from well-dated archaeological deposits known from the excavations of archaeological sites in the Crimea, as well as the surrounding area, provide the information as for the volume of the Byzantine import and changes in the imported pottery assemblage during the 13th century. First of all, these are the cultural remains with the layers of fire and destruction on the territory of the medieval towns in southern and south-western Crimea with the coins of 1250—1260s; shipwreck near the Novy Svet village south-west to Sudak, which wrecked not earlier than 1260—1270s; two pits in the harbor part of Soldaia / Sudak with coins of the 1266 and 1270s, which, according to stratigraphy, were filled after the mentioned catastrophe; sites in south-eastern Crimea with coins of the last quarter of the 13th — early 14th century, so on. Correlation of data from these contexts leads to the following conclusions. 1. Quantity of Byzantine ceramics imported into Crimea during the 13th century was quite significant. It accounts for up to 70 % and more of the ceramics assemblages. 2. The range of glazed ware remained approximately the same from the beginning until the middle — third quarter of the 13th century. The MBP (mainly «Incised Sgraffito Ware», less often «Champlevй» and others); GWW with monochrome green glaze as well as green and brown painted variants; «Zeuxippus Ware» (class IА&II) prevailed. 3. Since the last third of the 13th century less elegant and cheaper vessels («Sgraffito with Concentric Circles», jugs with stripes of white engobe) from different workshops, which in large quantities arise on the Byzantine and surrounding lands, start to come to the Crimea and Northern Black Sea Region. Their activities were stimulated by the intensification of maritime trade and the growing demand for cheap glazed pottery. 4. Cessation of some groups of import, especially MBP from Chalcis, may be due to the ousting of the Venetians from the Crimean market and their temporary difficulties with novation in the Black Sea after 1261. At the same time, the sales crisis could lead to the decline of some large pottery centers and to the emergence of new focused on more promising trading intermediaries, which the Genoese became.

References

Aybabin, A. I. 2014. O date razrusheniya gorodishcha na plato Eski-Kermen. Antichnaya drevnost i sredniye veka, 42, s. 215-227.
Alekseyenko, N. A. 1996. K voprosu o deyatelnosti Khersonesskogo monetnogo dvora v XIII stoletii. Khersonesskiy sbornik, VII, s. 187-191.
Bocharov, S. G., Maslovskiy, A. N. 2012. Vizantiyskaya polivnaya keramika v gorodakh Severnogo Prichernomoria zolotoordynskogo perioda (vtoraya polovina XIII — konets XIV vv.). Volzhskaya arkheologiya, 1, s. 20-36.
Volkov, I. V. 2005. Polivnaya keramika kompleksa Kabardi. In: Bocharov, S. G., Myts, V. L. (ed.). Polivnaya keramika Sredizemnomoria i Prichernomoria X—XVIII vv. Kiev: Stilos, I, s. 122-159.
Golofast, L. A., Ryzhov, S. N. 2003. Raskopki kvartala X v severnom rayone Khersonesa. Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, X, s. 182-260.
Zalesskaja, V. N. 2011. Pamjatniki vizantijskogo prikladnogo iskusstva. Vizantijskaja keramika IX—XV vekov. Katalog kollekcii. Saint Petersburg: Gosudarstvennyj Jermitazh.
Zavadskaya, I. A., Golofast, L. A. 2018. Keramicheskiye kompleksy khozyaystvennykh vyrubok v kvartale 1 na gorodishche Eski-Kermen (raskopki 2006 i 2007 gg. ). Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, XXIII, s. 305-358.
Zelenko, S. M. 2008. Podvodnaya arkheologiya Kryma. Kiev: Stilos.
Koval’, V. Ju. 2010. Keramika Vostoka na Rusi IX—XVII vv. Moscow: Nauka.
Mayko, V. V. 2013. Zakrytyy kompleks pervoy poloviny XIII v. v portovoy chasti sredenevekovoy Sugdei. Alekseyenko, N. A. (ed.). Χερσωνοσ Θεματα «imperiya» i «polis». Sevastopol: Arefyev, s. 69-90.
Maslovskiy, A. N. 2010. Ob odnoy gruppe vizantiyskoy polivnoy keramiki kon. XIII — 1-y pol. XIV v. iz raskopok zolotoordynskogo Azaka. Stepi Evropy v epokhu srednevekovia, 8, s. 231-252.
Myts, V. L. 2016. Zavoyevaniye pozdnevizantiyskoy Tavriki Mongolami: istoriko-arkheologicheskiy kontekst katastrofy posledney chetverti XIII v. Stratum plus, 6, s. 69-106.
Parshina, E. A. 2002. Drevniy Partenit (po materialam raskopok 1985—1988 gg. ). In: Rudnitskaya, V. G., Teslenko, I. B. (eds.). Alushta i Alushtinskiy region s drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney. Kiev: Stilos, s. 89-109.
Rabinovits, A., Sedikova, L. V., Khenneberg, R. 2009. Povsednevnaya zhizn provintsialnogo goroda v pozdnevizantiyskiy period. Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, XV, s. 196-274.
Romanchuk, A. I. 2003. Glazurovannaya posuda pozdnevizantiyskogo Khersona. Portovyy rayon. Ekaterinburg: UrGU.
Sedikova, L. V. 2018. Keramicheskiy kompleks XIII v. iz sloya razrusheniya usadeb 2 i 3 v kvartale L Khersonesskogo gorodishcha. Materialy po arkheologii istorii i etnografii Tavrii, XXIII, s. 402-458.
Semin, S. V. 1998. Polivnyye beloglinyanyye sosudy vtoroy poloviny XIII — pervoy poloviny XIV v. iz Alustona. In: Istoriko-kulturnyye svyazi Prichernomoria i Sredizemnomoria X—XVIII vv. po materialam polivnoy keramiki. Тezisy dokladov nauchnoy konferentsii (Yalta, 25—29 maya 1998 g.). Simferopol: Kalamo, s. 179-181.
Talis, D. L. 1976. Polivnaya keramika Baklinskogo gorodishcha. Sovetskaia arkheologia, 4, s. 63-87.
Teslenko, І. B. 2018. Vyrobnytstvo polyv’yanogo posudu v Krymu za chasіv Ulug Ulusu. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 4 (29), s. 7-83.
Yakobson, A. L. 1979. Keramika i keramicheskoye proizvodstvo srednevekovoy Tavriki. Leningrad: Nauka.
Yashayeva, T., Denisova, E., Ginkut, N., Zalesskaya, V., Zhuravlev, D. 2011. Naslediye Vizantiyskogo Khersona. Sevastopol: Teleskop.
Avissar, M., Stern, E. J. 2005. Pottery of the Crusader, Ayyubid, and Mamluk Periods in Israel. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority. Israeli Antiquities Authority Reports, 26.
Bцhlendorf-Arslan, B. 2004. Die glasierte byzantinische Keramik aus der Tьrkei. Istanbul: Ege Yayinlari.
Hayes, J. W. 1992. Excavations at Sarachane in Istanbul. The pottery. Princeton: Princeton University and Dumbarton Oaks Reserch Library and Collection, 2.
Karpov, S. P. 2011. Main Changes in the Black Sea Trade and Novigation, 12th—15th centuries. In: Proceedings of the 22nd International congress of Byzantine Studies, Sofia, 22—27 August 2011. Sofia, I, p. 419-429.
Manolova-Voykova, M. 2018. Import of Middle Byzantine Pottery to the Western Black Sea Coast: An Overview. In: XIth Congress AIECM3 on Medieval and Modern Period Mediterranean Ceramics, October 19—24, 2015, Antalya. Antalya, p. 93-105.
Morozova, Y., Zelenko, S., Tymoshenko, M. 2013. «Green and Brown» White Wares from the Collection of the Archaeological Museum, National University of Kiev (Ukraine). In: SOMA 2010: Proceedings of 14th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, Kiev, Ukraine, 23—25 April 2010. Oxford: Information Press, p. 127-131.
Papanicola-Bakirtzi, D. (ed.). 1999. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics. Athens: Archaeological Receipts Fund.
Papanikola-Bakirtzi, D., Marikiou, F. N., Bakirtzis, Ch. 1999. Byzantine Glazed Pottery in the Benaki Museum. Athens: Benaki Museum.
Sanders, G. D. R. 1995. Byzantine Glazed Pottery at Corinth to c. 1125. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Birmingham.
Sanders, G. D. R. 2000. New Relative and Absolute Chronologies for 9th to 13th Century Glazed Wares at Corinth: Methodology and Social Conclusions. In: Belke, K., Hild, F. (eds.). Byzanz als Raum. Zu Methoden und Inhalten der historischen Geographie des цstlischen Mittelmeerraumes im Mittelalter. Vienna, p. 153-173.
Sanders, G. D. R. 2003. Recent developments in the chronology of Byzantine Corinth. Corinth: Results of Excavations Carried out by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 20, p. 385-399.
Teslenko, I., Waksman, S. Y. Ginkut, N. Forthcoming. Late Byzantine Imports of «Elaborate Incised Wares» in the Crimea and Local Counterparts: Archaeological Contexts and Archaeometric Investigations. In: Aacts of 12th International congress on medieval and modern period mediterranean ceramics, Athens, October 21—27, 2018.
Waksman, S. Y., Franзois, V. 2004—2005. Vers une redefinition typologique et analytique des cйramiques byzantines du type Zeuxippus Ware. Bulletin de correspondence hellйnique, p. 128-129, 629-724.
Waksman, S. Y., Teslenko, I., Zelenko, S. 2009. Glazed Wares as Main Cargoes and Personal Belongings in the Novy Swet Shipwreck (13th c. AD, Crimea): a Diversity of Origins Investigated by Chemical Analysis. In: Actas del VIII Congreso Internacional de Ceramica Medieval. Ciudad Real-Almagro del 27 del febrero al 3 de marso de 2006. Ciudad Real: Asociaciуn Espaňola de Arceologнa Medieval, II, p. 851-856.
Waksman, S. Y., Teslenko, I. 2010. «Novy Svet Ware», an Exceptional Cargo of Glazed Wares in a 13th Century Shipwreck near Sudak (Crimea, Ukraine). Morphological Typology and Laboratory Investigations. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 39, 2, p. 357-375.
Waksman, S. Y., Kontogiannis, N. D., Skartsis, S. S., Vaxevanis, G. 2014. The Main «Middle Byzantine Production» and Pottery Manufacture in Thebes and Chalcis. Annual of the British School at Athens, 109, p. 379-422.
Waksman, S. Y., Koutsouflakis, G., Burlot, J., Courbe, L. 2018. Archaeometric Investigations of the Tableware Cargo of the Kavalliani Shipwreck (Greece) and into the Role of the Harbour of Chalcis in the Byzantine and Frankish Periods. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 21, p. 1122-1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.06.027.

Abstract views: 28
PDF Downloads: 9
Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
TeslenkoI. B. (2020). BYZANTINE GLAZED CERAMICS OF THE 13th CENTURY IN THE CRIMEA (short review). Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 35(2), 395-404. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.02.31