ABOUT THE COINS WITH LITHUANIAN COUNTERMARKS «COLUMNS»


Keywords: Golden Horde coins, Lithuanian countermarks, «Columns», Vytautas, 15th century, Prague groats, «tamga».

Abstract

This paper considers the problem of Golden Horde and Tatar-Genoese coins with Lithuanian countermarks «Columns». These coins occurred in several hoards, mainly in Eastern Podillia and Southern Kyiv lands. The finds of these coins are dated to the 15th century. The exact date of beginning of countermarking is unknown. However, they did not appear there earlier than in 1420s, during the reign of Vytautas as the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1392—1430). In Ukrainian finds the Golden Horde coins with Lithuanian countermarks «Columns» are occurred together with Prague groats of Wenceslaus (1378—1419). Probably, Golden Horde coins continued to be countermarked in Eastern Podillia and Southern Kyiv lands after the death of Vytautas in 1430. But, in the 14th — first part of the 15th century, the sign usually called «Kolumny» (or «Gedyminas Columns») was connected with Grand Duke of Lithuania Kiejstut (1345—1382) and his sons, especially Grand Duke Vytautas. The sign was well known of the steppe peoples of Ukraine as a «tamga». Polish chronicler Jan Długosz testifies it’s use by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas to brand his horses in 1410. In my opinion, Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas has begun re-struck the «Columns» (the «tamga of Vytautas») in the 1420s because of appearance of the low-grade Golden Horde coins with the content of silver 300–600/1000 grades. Numerous groups of silver with different pyrity were used in the circulation of Ukrainian lands as well as silver coins with defferent alloys quality (800—900/1000) of Toqtamish (1380—1399), Shadibek (1399—1407), Pulad (1407—1410) and other Khans of 1410—1420s.

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Published
2020-06-30
How to Cite
KozubovskyiG. A. (2020). ABOUT THE COINS WITH LITHUANIAN COUNTERMARKS «COLUMNS». Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 35(2), 405-411. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.02.32