THE SECOND STAGE OF SARMATIAN SETTLEMENT IN WALLACHIA


Keywords: Sarmatians, Wallachia, Roman Empire, graves, funerary ritual, grave goods.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to discuss the features of the graves that can be attributed to the second stage of Sarmatian settlement in Wallachia. The first stage of arrival of the Sarmatians in Wallachia can be dated in the last decade of the 1st century AD and the first decades of the 2nd century AD. The second stage of arrival of the Sarmatians in Wallachia, linked to the Marcomannic Wars, begins in the late 2nd century AD and continues during the following century. Sarmatians entered Wallachia not as enemies of the Roman Empire, but as allies always supervised by the Roman troops. A number of 153 graves can be linked with the second stage of Sarmatian settlement in Wallachia, whose territorial distribution, although extended in comparison with the first stage, does not uniformly cover the entire territory of Wallachia. The features of Sarmatian burials are discussed in detail: grave layout (types of interments, orientation, position of the deceased, age and sex of the individuals), main categories of grave goods (pottery, adornments, dress accessories, toilet implements, household tools, weapons). Based on this analysis, the main features of the funerary ritual are emphasized. The tendency to uniform the orientation and the position of the deceased individuals can be clearly observed. As regards the funerary inventory, not only the diversity of the categories of items is visible, but also their deposit in higher numbers in the burials. Dacian pottery is deposited even more often than the handmade Sarmatian pottery, but the Roman imports not only register the same low frequency, but also do not differ too much compared to the previous stage. A clear change in the display of the status during the period between the late 2nd century AD and the middle of the following century can be noticed: the tumuli lose their significance as status markers, grave goods with significant value disappear, possible higher status is emphasized by association of several items. Against a general background of diversification and increase in the number of items chosen to be deposited inside the grave, a real series of female burials stands out. The loss of the Roman control over Wallachia resulted in the sudden decrease, until almost extinction, of the number of Sarmatian discoveries here.

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2020-05-28
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Oţa, L. (2020). THE SECOND STAGE OF SARMATIAN SETTLEMENT IN WALLACHIA . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 36(3), 157-177. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/278