ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION OF THE 2nd—1st CENTURIES BC AND SOME ETHNIC ISSUES OF THE SARMATIANS


Keywords: Sarmatians, Aorsi, Lower Volga region, swords, daggers, military burials.

Abstract

The paper concerns with chronological analysis of Early Sarmatian military burials with two swords in the Lower Volga region dated to the last centuries BC. There are two combinations of the different bladed weapons in the burials: swords with a ring pommel and daggers with a crescent-shaped pommel; swords without metal pommel with the rhomboid cross-bar and daggers with a crescent-shaped pommel. Swords and daggers with a crescent-shaped pommel are absent in the burials after the turn of AD. Swords and daggers with ring pommel or rhomboid-shaped cross-bar have appeared during the new migration wave in the Lower Volga region not earlier than in the 2nd century BC. This determines the chronological framework of the assemblages. Daggers and swords with a crescent-shaped pommel are the local product, they were used much earlier than the swords of migratory origin. The authors suggest that the emergence of innovations is associated with the migration of the 2nd—1st centuries BC from Central Asia, because in addition to swords with ring pommel and bronze cross-bar without metal pommel, there were found bronze openwork and lattice buckles, jet buckles and cubic incense burners, well known in the East.

The burials with Northern direction and wooden decks have the analogies in Tuvan antiquities of the Xiungnu-Sarmatian time. At the same time in ancient sources there is a list of tribes among which Aorsi and Top Aorsi on the Don and in the Volga region, Rhoxolani in the Northern Pontic region and Siraci in the Kuban region are mentioned. Although all this area was called Sarmatia, the name Sarmatians is not included in this list. The authors believe that the new tribes replaced the Sarmatians but in Greek literary tradition the territory retained its old familiar name. In addition to swords and daggers with the crescent-shaped pommel, other items known as early as the 4th—3rd centuries BC continue to occur in the burials, and the burial rite continues to preserve the custom of southern direction of the buried and the practice of placing the burial in a circle or in a row under the mound. All this is the evidence of the unique symbiosis of two cultural traditions: the previous local and newcomer Central Asian.

References

Balabanova, M. A. 2010. Novye dannye ob antropologicheskom tipe sarmatov. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 2, s. 67-77.
Bespaly, E. I., Lukijashko, S. I. 2008. Drevnee naselenie mezhdurechija Dona i Kagalnika. 1: Kurganny mogilnik u s. Vysochino. Rostov-na-Donu: YuNCz RAN.
Glebov, V. P. 2016. Pryazhki s zoomorfnymi izobrazheniyami v rannesarmatskoj kulture Nizhnego Podonija. In: Konstantin Fedorovich Smirnov i sovremennye problemy sarmatskoj arkheologii. Materialy IX Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferenczii «Problemy sarmatskoj arxeologii i istorii», posvyashhennoj 100-letiju so dnya rozhdeniya Konstantina Fedorovicha Smirnova. Orenburg: OGPU, s. 69-79.
Zajtsev, Yu. P., Mordvintseva, V. I. 2003. Podvyaznye fibuly v varvarskikh pogrebeniyakh Severnogo Prichernomorija pozdneellinisticheskogo perioda. Rossijskaya arkheologia, 2, s. 135-154.
Zasetskaya, I. P. 2016. Stilisticheskie osobennosti dekora na falarakh iz Yashkulja. In: Antichnaya czivilizacziya i varvarskij mir Ponto-Kaspijskogo regiona. Materialy Vserossijskoj nauchnoj konferenczii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem, posvyashhennoj 70-letnemu yubileyu B. A. Raeva. Rostov-na-Donu: YuNC RAN, s. 90-105.
Klepikov, V. M. 2014. Rannesarmatskie pogrebeniya Nizhnego Povolzhya s severnoj orientirovkoj. Nizhnevolzhskij arkheologicheskij vestnik, 14, s. 51 — 56.
Klepikov, V. M., Skripkin, A. S. 2002. Khronologiya rannesarmatskikh pamyatnikov Nizhnego Povolzhya. Nizhnevolzhskij arkheologicheskij vestnik, 5, s. 47-81.
Kropotov, V. V. 2010. Fibuly sarmatskoj epokhi. Kiev: ADEF-Ukraina.
Mikhlin, B. Yu. 1980. Fibuly Belyauskogo mogilnika. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 3, s. 194-213.
Podosinov, A. V. 2002. Vostochnaya Evropa v rimskoj kartograficheskoj traditsii. Teksty, perevody, kommentarii. Moskva: Indrik.
Skripkin, A. S. 2000. Novye aspekty v izuchenii istorii materialnoj kultury sarmatov. Nizhnevolzhskij arkheologicheskij vestnik, 3, s. 17-40.
Skripkin, A. S. 2003. O novom variante luchkovykh fibul iz sarmatskikh pogrebenij v Volgo-Donskom mezhdurechie. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 2, s. 128-134.
Skripkin, A. S. 2005. Sarmatskie mechi s koltsevym navershiem. In: II Gorodtsovskie chteniya: materialy nauchnoj konferentszii, posvyashchennoj 100-letiyu deyatelnosti V. A. Gorodtsova v GIM. Moskva: GIM, s. 171-185.
Skripkin, A. S. 2015. Klinkovoe oruzhie v razrabotke khronologii i nekotorykh voprosov etnicheskoj istorii rannesarmatskoj kultury Volgo-Uralskogo regiona. In: Vojna i voennoe delo v skifo-sarmatskom mire. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii, posvyashchennoj pamiyati A. I. Melyukovoj. Rostov-na-Donu: YuNC RAN, s. 191-197.
Skripkin, A. S. 2016. O proiskhozhdenii mechej prokhorovskogo tipa. In: Konstantin Fedorovich Smirnov i sovremennye problemy sarmatskoj arkheologii. Materialy IX Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferentsii «Problemy sarmatskoj arkheologii i istorii», posvyashchennoj 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Konstantina Fedorovicha Smirnova. Orenburg: OGPU, s. 264-275.
Skripkin, A. S. 2019. Kochevoj mir yuga Vostochnoj Evropy vo II—I vv. do n. e. (vostochnye innovatsii, fakty, prichiny, posledstviya). Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4. Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1 (24), s. 20-34.
Skripkin, A. S., Klepikov, V. M. 2004. Khronologiya rannesarmatskoj kultury Nizhnego Povolzhija. In: Sarmatskie kultury Evrazii: Problemy regionalnoj khronologii. Doklady k 5 mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii «Problemy sarmatskoj arkheologii i istorii». Krasnodar, s. 95-106.
Skripkin, A. S., Shinkar, O. A. 2010. Zhutovskij kurgan N 27 sarmatskogo vremeni v Volgo-Donskom mezhdurechie. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 1, s. 130-142.
Trejster, M. Yu. 2018. Parfyanskie i rannesasanidskie «importy» v pogrebeniyakh kochevnikov Vostochnoj Evropy (II v. do n. e. — III v. n. e.). Materialy po arkheologii i istorii antichnogo i srednevekovogo Kryma. Arkheologiya, istoriya, numizmatika, sfragistika i epigrafika, 10, s. 118-210.
Trejster, M. Yu. 2019. «Importy» iz Tsentralnoj Azii i Sibiri v pogrebalnykh pamyatnikakh Aziatskoj Sarmatii II—I vv. do n. e. Problemy istorii, filologii, kultury, 4, s. 180—239
Fedorov, V. K. 2011. Recz. na kn.: Yablonskij L. T. Prochorovka: u istokov sarmatskoj arxeologii. M.: Taus, 2010. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 4, s. 155-159.
Yablonskij, L. T. 2010. Prochorovka. U istokov sarmatskoj arkheologii. Moskva: Taus.
Mordvinceva, V. 2001. Sarmatische Phaleren. Archдologie in Eurasien, 11. Rahden: Leidorf.
Skvorcov, N. B., Skripkin, A. S. 2006. Eine sarmatische Adelsbestattung aus dem Wolgograder Wolgagebiet. Eurasia Antiqua, 12, S. 251-267.

Abstract views: 8
PDF Downloads: 18
Published
2020-05-17
How to Cite
Skripkin, A. S., & Klepikov , V. M. (2020). ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION OF THE 2nd—1st CENTURIES BC AND SOME ETHNIC ISSUES OF THE SARMATIANS . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 36(3), 214-222. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/281