BRONZE SCABBARD-CHAPE AND BIMETALLIC SWORD FROM M. F. SUMTSOV KHARKIV HISTORICAL MUSEUM


Keywords: Scythian culture, scabbard-chapes, bimetallic sword, archaeological exhibition in Kharkiv, M. F. Sumtsov Kharkiv Historical Museum.

Abstract

In M. F. Sumtsov Kharkiv Historical Museum archaeological collection a bronze scabbard-chape can be found, which has a form of a rhomb-shaped plug that ends with a head of a carnivorous bird. The bird’s head is conveyed by three expressive elements — an eye in the eyesocket, a beak, and a tonguelet. Chapes of such type count a bit more than twenty exemplars, which are located preferably on the Caucasus and Northern Black Sea coastal area territories. Chape was included in the so-called «Kharkiv treasure». This treasure was supposedly found by two teenagers in their yard in 1957; they gave it to the museum. The treasure is very variegated by its content and counts 236 objects of different epochs — from the Neolithic Age to the Middle Ages and modern ages. By the range of symptoms the treasure can be linked to the Archaeological exhibition opened in occupied Kharkiv in 1942 and which was demolished by the fire in February 1943. The exhibition was based on the materials of the Historical Museum collections and the Archaeological Museum of the Kharkiv University; it demonstrated as wide chronological period as the content of the «Kharkiv treasure» was — from the Stone Age to the Cossacks times. So, apparently before the war, the chape belonged to the collection of one of these museums. The loss of the accounting records of both museums prevents from determining the more precise origin of the chape.

In the Archaeological exhibition remnants after the fire a bimetallic sword with an iron blade and bronze handle was also found. The sword and the chape belong to the same cultural and chronological context and are tied with each other functionally. At the same time, they are quite rare findings. It allows admitting a possible connection between them and their belonging to the same complex. Visually the Kharkiv chape is the closest to the findings from the Northern Black Sea coastal area, which allows defining the possible territory of origin of this complex, which is just hypothetic for now.

References

Akritas, P. G. 1961. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniia Chegemskogo ushchelia v 1959 g. Sbornik statei po istorii Kabardino-Balkarii, IX, s. 177-192.
Babenko, L. I. 2010. O nekotorykh bimetallicheskikh mechakh skifskogo vremeni s territorii Kavkaza. In: Problemy khronologii i periodizatsii arkheologicheskikh pamiatnikov i kultur Severnogo Kavkaza. XXVI «Krupnovskie chteniia» po arkheologii Severnogo Kavkaza. Magas, 26—30 aprelia 2010 g. Tezisy dokladov. Magas: Piligrim, s. 26-28.
Babenko, L. I. 2018. Kollektsiia Aleksandropolskogo kurgana v sobranii Kharkovskogo istoricheskogo muzeia imeni N. F. Sumtsova. In: Polin, S. V., Alekseev, A. Iu. Skifskii tsarskii Aleksandropolskii kurgan IV v. do n. e. v Nizhnem Podneprove. Kiev; Berlin: Oleg Filiuk, s. 591-627.
Babenko, L. I. 2006. Bimetalevyi mech skifskoho chasu z kolektsii Kharkivskoho istorychnoho muzeiu. Arkheolohiia, 2, s. 53-57.
Babenko, L. I. 2011. Korotkyi narys istorii viddilu arkheolohii Kharkivskoho istorychnoho muzeiu. In: Aksonov, V. S., Babenko, L. I. (ukl.). Viddil arkheolohii Kharkivskoho istorychnoho muzeiu (1991—2010): Bibliohrafichnyi pokazhchyk. Kharkiv: Machulin, s. 5-16.
Vinogradov, V. B. 1974. Novye nakhodki predmetov skifo-sibirskogo zverinogo stilia v Checheno-Ingushetii. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 4, s. 258-263.
Volnaia, G. N. 2015. Nakonechniki nozhen s izobrazheniem golovy ptitsy iz pamiatnikov rannego zheleznogo veka Tsentralnogo Kavkaza i ikh analogii v skifo-sibirskom zverinom stile. Rossiiskaia Arkheologiia, 1, s. 19-31.
Voroshilov, A. N. 2006. Bronzovoe i bimetallicheskoe klinkovoe oruzhie skifskogo tipa Vostochnoi Evropy i Kavkaza. Arkheolohichnyi litopys Livoberezhnoi Ukrainy, 1, s. 34-45.
Voroshilov, A. N. 2007. Bimetallicheskie mechi skifskogo vremeni iz mezhdurechia Dona i Volgi. Rossiiskaia Arkheologiia, 3, s. 150-156.
Zadnikov, S. A. 2019. Kollekcziya predmetov iz Aleksandropol’skogo kurgana v sobranii Muzeya arkheologii Khar’kovskogo naczional’nogo universiteta imeni V. N. Karazina. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 4, s. 285-294.
Zimovets, R. V. 2016. O lokalnykh osobennostiakh bronzovykh buterolei v vide golovy khishchnoi ptitsy. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 2, s. 76-88.
Ilinskaia, V. A., Mozolevskii, B. N., Terenozhkin, A. I. 1980. Kurgany VI v. do n. e. u s. Matusov. In: Terenozhkin, A. I. (ed.). Skifiia i Kavkaz. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 31-63.
Kantorovich, A. R. 2015. Skifskii zverinyi stil Vostochnoi Evropy: klassifikatsiia, tipologiia, khronologiia, evoliutsiia. Dissertatsiia d. i. n. MGU.
Krupnov, E. I. 1960. Drevniaia istoriia Severnogo Kavkaza. Moskva: AN SSSR.
Moshinskii, A. P. 2006. Drevnosti Gornoi Digorii. VII—IV vv. do n. e. Trudy GIM, 154. Moskva.
Novichikhin, A. M. 2006. Naselenie Zapadnogo Zakubania v pervoi polovine I tysiacheletiia do n. e. (po materialam pogrebalnykh pamiatnikov). Anapa: RIO SGUT i KD.
Ostroverkhov, A. S., Okhotnikov, S. B. 1989. O nekotorykh motivakh zverinogo stilia na pamiatnikakh iz sobraniia Odesskogo arkheologicheskogo muzeia. Vestnik drevnei istorii, 2, s. 50-67.
Polidovich, Iu. B. 2015. Struktura i simvolika dekora nozhen mechei ranneskifskogo vremeni. In: Lukiashko, S. I. (ed.). Voina i voennoe delo v skifo-sarmatskom mire. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoi nauchnoi konferentsii, posviashchennoi pamiati A. I. Meliukovoi (Kagalnik, 26—29 aprelia 2014 g.). Rostov-na-Donu: IuNTs RAN, s. 153-161.
Puzakov, E. V. 1958. Otchet ob arkheologicheskikh issledovaniiakh Kharkovskogo gosudarstvennogo istoricheskogo muzeia v baseine reki Severskogo Dontsa v 1957 g. NA IA NAN Ukrainy, f. 2884, 1957/18.
Puzakov, Ye. 1959. Tsinna arkheolohichna kolektsiia. Sotsialistychna Kharkivshchyna, 24 liutoho, 41 (10016), s. 4.
Piankov, A. V. 2005. Bronzovyi zoomorfnyi nakonechnik akinaka iz fondov Krasnodarskogo muzeia-zapovednika. In: Guliaev, V. I. (ed.). Drevnosti Evrazii ot rannei bronzy do rannego srednevekovia. Pamiati V. S. Olkhovskogo. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 448-450.
Skoryi, S. A., Zimovets, R. V. 2014. Skifskie drevnosti Kryma. Materialy odnoi kollektsii. Kiev: Oleh Filiuk.
Skoryi, S. A., Okatenko, V. N., Zimovets, R. V. 2020. Skifskoe arkhaicheskoe pogrebenie v urochishche Marchenki bliz Belskogo gorodishcha. Arkheologicheskoe nasledie, 1 (3), s. 113-134.
Topal, D. A. 2014. Akinaki na zapadnykh rubezhakh Skifii. Nakhodki skifskikh mechei i kinzhalov s territorii Respubliki Moldova. Tyragetia, 8, 1, s. 7-43.
Topal, D. A. 2015. Bimetallicheskie akinaki tipa Gudermes i ispolzovanie bronzy v izgotovlenii ranneskifskogo klinkovogo oruzhiia. Materialy po arkheologii Severnogo Prichernomoria, 13, s. 54-79.
Topal, D. 2018. Skifskoe klinkovoe vooruzhenie VII—IV vv. do n. e. (iugo-zapad Vostochnoi Evropy). Dissertatsiia doktora istorii. Tsentr arkheologii Instituta kulturnogo naslediia AN Moldovy.
Uvarova, P. S. 1900. Mogilniki Severnogo Kavkaza. Materialy po arkheologii Kavkaza, VIII. Moskva: A. I. Mamontov.
Khanenko, B. N., Khanenko, V. I. 1900. Drevnosti Pridneprovia, III.
Chizhevskii, A. A. 2008. Pogrebalnye pamiatniki naseleniia Volgo-Kamia v finale bronzovogo — rannem zheleznom vekakh: predananinskaia i ananinskaia kulturno-istoricheskie oblasti. Kazan: Shkola.
Shelekhan, O. V. 2016. Mechi ta kyndzhaly skifskoho chasu Skhidnoievropeiskoho Lisostepu. Dysertatsiia k. i. n. IA NAN Ukrainy.
Shkurko, A. I. 1962. Skifskii kinzhal iz Dnepropetrovskogo muzeia. In: Avdusin, D. A., Ianin, V. L. (eds.). Istoriko-arkheologicheskii sbornik. Moskva, s. 97-100.
Kurzer… b. r. Kurzer Fьhrer durch die Ausstellung der vorgeschichtlichen Sammlungen des Einsatzstabes Reichsleiter Rosenberg, Abt. Vorgeschichte in Charkow. TsDAVO Ukrainy, f. 3676, op. 1, spr. 58, ark. 149-153.
Topal, D. A. 2015. Use of bronze in the producing of Early Scythian akinakai. Tyragetia, 9, 1, p. 29-50.
Vulpe, A. 1990. Die Kurzschwerter, Dolche und Streitmesser der Hallstattzeit in Rumдnien. Prдhistorische Bronzefunde, VI, 9. Mьnchen: C. H. Beck’sche.

Abstract views: 5
PDF Downloads: 4
Published
2020-04-01
How to Cite
Babenko, L. I. (2020). BRONZE SCABBARD-CHAPE AND BIMETALLIC SWORD FROM M. F. SUMTSOV KHARKIV HISTORICAL MUSEUM . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 36(3), 238-245. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/283