PALAEOLITHIC HUMAN SOCIETIES DURING THE UPPER PLENIGLACIAL THROUGHT THEIR RELATIONS WITH OTHER ANIMALS IN UKRAINIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES


Keywords: Upper Palaeolithic, Zooarchaeology, Subsistence activities, Gravettian, Epigravettian.

Abstract

The first part of the Upper Pleniglacial (around 26000—20000 BP) is characterized by a deterioration in weather conditions, which reached its peak during the Last Glacial Maximum. In the East European Plain, most of its lands were dominated by a periglacial steppe-tundra with the maximum extension of ice sheet in the North and permafrost. The different animal species had to adapt to these environments, also as human groups.The recent works realized in Ukraine permit to better understand the lifestyles of the Palaeolithic human groups, particularly their subsistence activities, the modalities of settlements and the technocultural practices. We based our study on the main sites, Dorochivtsy III, Galich 1, Klussy, Korman, Molodova V, Obollonia, Oselivka, Pushkari 1 and Pogon (Pushkari 8). These sites are very important to better understand the human occupations for all the East European Plain. Here we particularly focus on the zooarchaeological remains, which permitted to better determine the taphonomic conditions, the human activities, the seasonality of occupations and the human and other animal relationships. The main species present in archaeological sites are Mammoth, Reindeer, Horse, Fox and Wolf, who have important implication on the territory modification and the food resource for humans. Moreover the animal eco-ethology involvement of their acquisition-exploitation by nomadic hunter-gatherers, permits to highlight the potential human behavioral strategies. They show the continuous occupation of the territories by humans, in any seasons, with the persistence of organized activities, innovations and varied behaviors. This period corresponds to the changes between middle Gravettian and late Gravettian, then first Epigravettian features. The end of the Last Glacial Maximum peak marks the disappearance of Late Gravettian and of human populations between 19—16000 BP, followed by a hiatus until 16000 BP.

References

Alekseeva, L. I. 1987. Teriofauna mnogoslojnoj stoyanki Molodova V. In: Ivanova, I. K., Czejtlin, S. M. (eds.). Mnogoslojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Molodova V. Lyudi kamennogo veka i okruzhayushhaya sreda. Moskva: Nauka, s. 153-162.

Belyaeva, V. I. 2002. Paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Pushkari I (kharakteristika kul’turnogo sloya). Sankt-Peterburg: SPbGU.

Boriskovskij, P. I. 1953. Paleolit Ukrainy. Istoriko-arkheologicheskie ocherki. Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSSR, 40. Moskva; Leningrad: Nauka.

Vasil’ev P. M. 2014. Novy’e issledovaniya verxnepaleoliticheskoj stoyanki Pogon (2011—2013 gg.). Arkheolohichnyi almanakh, 31: Epihravetski pamiatky Serednoho Podniprovia, s. 31-50.

Voevodskij, M. V. 1950. Paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Pogon. Kratkie soobshheniya IIMK, 31, s. 40-54.

Ivanova, I. K., Czejtlin, S. M. (eds.). 1987. Mnogoslojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Molodova V. Lyudi kamennogo veka i okruzhayushhaya sreda. Moskva: Nauka.

Kononenko, O. N. 2018. Prostranstvennoe raspredelenie kamennyh artefaktov stoyanki Radomyshl’ I i reviziya ee mesta v rekonstrukcziyax verxnepaleoliticheskogo obshhestva. Stratum plus, 1, s. 105-124.

Korniiets, N. L. 1962 Pro prychyny vymyrannia mamonta na terytorii Ukrainy. Vykopni fauny Ukrainy i sumizhnykh terytorii, 1, s. 93-169.

Kulakovskaya, L. V., Usik, V. I., Ezarts, P., 2012. Doroshivczi III — gravettskaya stoyanka v doline Dnestra (Ukraina). Stratum plus, 1, p. 131-150.

Pidoplichko, I. H. 1947. Paleolit i neolit Ukrainy. Kyiv: AN URSR.

Pidoplichko, I. G. 1969. Pozdnepaleoliticheskie zhilishha iz kostej mamonta na Ukraine. Kiev: Naukova dumka.

Rudinskij, M. Ya. 1947. Pushkari. Sovetskaya arkheologіya, 9, s. 171-198.

Sablin, M. V. 1997. Ostatki mlekopitayushhix iz pozdnepaleoliticheskogo poseleniya Pushhkari I. In: Belyaeva, V. I. (ed.). Pushkarevskij sbornik. 1. Sankt-Peterburg, s. 35-43.

Stupak, D. V. 2008. Novi doslidzhennia verkhnopaleolitychnoi stoianky Kliusy. In: Kulakovska, L. V. (ed.). Doslidzhennia pervisnoi arkheolohii v Ukraini. Kyiv: Korvin Press, s. 71-85.

Stupak, D. V., Khlopachev, H. A., Hrybchenko, Yu. M., Komar, M. S. 2014. Nova verkhnopaleolitychna stoianka Obolonnia. Arkheolohichnyi almanakh, 31: Epihravetski pamiatky Serednoho Podniprovia, s. 9-30.

Sytnyk, O, Tsyrek, K, Koropetskyi, R, Vzhesynska, A, 2005. Hravetska pamiatka Halych I. Materialy i doslidzhennia z arkheolohii Prykarpattia i Volyni, 9, s. 32-89.

Tatarinov, K. A. 1977. Fauna pozvonochnyh stoyanki Korman’ IV. In: Goreczkij, G. I., Czejtlin, S. M. (eds.). Mno¬go-slojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Korman’ IV na Srednem Dnestre. Moskva: Nauka, s. 112-118.

Hvojko, V. V. 1913. Drevnie obitateli Srednego Pridneprovya i ih kul’tura v doistoricheskie vremena (po raskopkam). Kiev.

Chernysh, A. P. 1959. Pozdnij paleolit Srednego Pridnestrovya. Trudy Komissii po izucheniyu chetvertichnogo perioda AN SSSR, XV: Paleolit srednego Pridnestrovya, s. 5-214.

Chernysh, A. P. 1973. Paleolit i mezolit Pridnestrovya (karty i katalog mestonahozhdenij). Moskva: Nauka.

Chernysh, A. P. 1975. Starodavnie naselennia Podnistrovia v dobu mezolitu. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.

Chernysh, A. P. 1977. Mnogoslojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Korman’ IV i eyo mesto v paleolite. In: Goreczkij, G. I., Czejtlin, S. M. (eds.). Mnogoslojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Korman’ IV na Srednem Dnestre. Moskva: Nauka, s. 7-77.

Chernysh, A. P. 1985. Verhnij paleolit. In: Telegin, D. Ya (ed.). Arheologiya Ukrainskoj SSR. 1. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 43-63.

Chernysh, A. P. 1987. E’talonnaya mnogoslojnaya stoyanka Molodova V. In: Ivanova, I. K., Czejtlin, S. M. (eds.). Mnogoslojnaya paleoliticheskaya stoyanka Molodova V. Lyudi kamennogo veka i okruzhayushhaya sreda. Moskva: Nauka, s. 7-93.

Shovkoplias, I. H. 1964. Paleolitychna stoianka Radomyshl 1. Arkheolohia, XVI, s. 88-102.

Shovkoplyas, I. G. 1967. Paleoliticheskaya ekspedicziya v 1965—1966 gg. Arheologicheskie issledovaniya v Ukraine, І, s. 56-61.

Abramova, Z. A. 1995. L’art palйolithique d’Europe orientale et de Sibйrie. Grenoble Jйrфme Millon.

Baker, T. 1993. Strings. In: Hamm, J., (ed.). The Traditional Bowyer’s Bible. 2. Azle: Bois d’Arc, p. 187-258.

Beaver, B. V. 2010. Horses: Behavior and Welfare Assesment. In Breed, M. D. and Moore, J. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, p. 112-116.

Bocherens, H., Drucker, D. G., Billiou, D., Patou-Mathis, M., Vandermeersch, B. 2005. Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint-Cйsaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model. Journal of Human Evolution, 49, 1, p. 71-87.

Borziac, I., Chirica, V., Văleanu, M.-C. 2006. Culture et sociйtйs pendant le Palйolithique supйrieur а travers l’espace carpato-dniestrйen. Bibliotheca Archaeologica Moldaviae, VI. Iaşi: Institut d’Archйologie, Pim.

Bouchud, J. 1954. Dents de Rennes, bois de Rennes et migrations. Bulletin de la Sociйtй Prйhistorique Franзaise, 51, p. 340-345.

Byrne, R. W., Bates, L. A., Moss, C. J. 2009. Elephant cognition in primate perspective. Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews, 4, p. 65-79.

Clark, P. U., Dyke, A. S., Shakun, J. D., Carlson, A. E., Clark, J., Wohlfarth, B., Mitrovica, J. X., Hostetler, S. W., McCabe, A. M. 2009. The Last Glacial Maximum. Science, 325 (5941), p. 710-714.

Crader, D.-C. 1983. Recent single-carcass bone scatters and the problem of « butchery » sites in the archaeological record. In Clutton-Brock, J., Grigson, C. (eds.). Animals and Archaeology. 1: Hunters and Their Prey, British Archaeological Reports, International Series, 163. Oxford, p. 107-41.

Demay, L., Patou-Mathis, M., Kulakovska, L. V. 2015. Zooarchaeology of the layers from Dorochivtsy III (Ukraine). Quaternary International, 359—360, p. 384-405.

Demay, L., Belyaeva, V. I., Kulakovska, L. V, Patou-Mathis, M., Pйan, S., Stupak, D. V., Vasil’ev, P. M., Otte, M., Noiret, P. 2016a. New evidences about human activities during the first part of the Upper Pleniglacial in Ukraine from zooarchaeological studies. Quaternary International, 412, A, p. 16-36.

Demay, L., Pйan, S., Belyaeva, V. I., Vasil’ev, P. M., Patou-Mathis, M. 2016b. Zooarchaeological study of an Upper Palaeolithic site with mammoth remains, Pushkari I — excavations VII (Chernigov oblast, Ukraine). Quaternary International, 406, B, p. 183-201.

Demay, L.,Vasil’ev, P. M., Belyaeva, V. I. (under press). Subsistence activities in the gravettian occupations of the Pushkari group: Pushkari 1 and Pushkari 8 (Pogon) (Ukraine). Quaternary International.

Haesaerts, P., Borziac, I., Chirica, V., Damblon, F., Koulakovska, L. V. 2007. Cadre stratigraphique et chronologique du Gravettien en Europe centrale. Paleo, 19: Spйcial table ronde (1иre partie): Le Gravettien: entitйs rйgionales d’une palйoculture europйenne, Les Eyzies, juillet 2004, p. 31-52.

Haynes, G. 2006. Mammoth landscapes: good country for hunter-gatherers. Quaternary International, 142—143, p. 20-29.

Hoppe, K. A. 2004. Late Pleistocene mammoth herd structure, migration patterns, and Clovis hunting strategies inferred from isotopic analyses on multiple death assemblages. Paleobiology, 30, 1, p. 129-145.

Kruuk, H. 2002. Hunter and Hunted: Relationships between Carnivores and People. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nuzhnyi, D. Yu. 2009. The industrial variability of the eastern Gravettian assemblages of Ukraine. Quartдr, 56, p. 159-174.

Otte, M., Kozłowski, J. K. 1982. Le Gravettien en Europe centrale et orientale (travaux rйcents 1976—1981). Йtudes et Recherches Archйologiques de l’Universitй de Liиge, 13: Aurignacien et Gravettien en Europe, III, p. 61-72.

Pйan, S., Kononenko, O. 2004. Features of the mammoth bone deposit from the Upper Palaeolithic site Radomyshl’ I (Ukraine). In: Abstracts of the 10th Annual EAA Meeting, 6—12 septembre, Lyon, p. 201-202.

Pfeffer, P. 1989. Vie et mort d’un gйant: L’йlйphant d’Afrique. Paris: Flammarion.

Rountrey, A. N., Fisher, D. C., Tikhonov, A. N., Ko¬sin¬tsev, P. A., Lazarev, P. A., Boeskorov, G., Buigues, B. 2012. Early tooth development, gestation, and season of birth in mammoths. Quaternary International, 255, p. 196-205.

Shydlovskyi, P., Stupak, D. 2015. The research of flint implements on Kyrylivska site. Naukovi studii, 8, p. 21-32.

Toussaint-Samat, M. 1997. Histoire naturelle et morale de la nourriture. Paris: Larousse-Bordas.

Velichko, A. A., Zelikson, E. M. 2005. Landscape, climate and mammoth food resources in the East European Plain during the Late Paleolithic epoch. Quaternary International, 126—128, p. 137-151.

Wojtal, P., Cyrek, K., Sytnyk, A. 2001. The new Upper Palaeolithic mammoth site at Halich (Ukraine). Acta zoologica Cracoviensia, 44, 2, p. 137-142.


Abstract views: 60
PDF Downloads: 26
Published
2020-12-23
How to Cite
Demay, L., Vasyliev, P. M., Koulakovska, L. V., Stupak, D. V., Shydlovskyi, P. S., & Belyaeva, V. I. (2020). PALAEOLITHIC HUMAN SOCIETIES DURING THE UPPER PLENIGLACIAL THROUGHT THEIR RELATIONS WITH OTHER ANIMALS IN UKRAINIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 82-93. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.04.06