BARMAKY SITE IN THE CONTEXT OF EPIGRAVETTIAN OF THE MIDDLE DNIEPER BASIN


Keywords: Epigravettian, Mid Dnieper basin, Mizyn industry, typological variability, chronology.

Abstract

The Upper Paleolithic site Barmaky, 2nd cultural layer from Volyhnia-Lublin upland is the most western manifestation of Epigravettian of the Mid Dnieper basin. During several field campaigns the 147 m2 of cultural deposits with three pits and one chalk / marl concentration were studied (fig. 1). The silty-loess deposits of Barmaky, 2 accumulated about 19 kyr cal BP (table 1) under the permafrost conditions. The fauna assemblage is represented by: mammoths, bison, reindeer, red deer, horse, bear, wolf, wolverine, polar fox, fox and hare. More than 100 thousand artifacts were recovered during the last two field campaigns. In essential account (without chips, chunks, unidentifiable debitage), the artifacts assemblage is represented by: cores and pre-cores — 0.87 %; flakes — 45.23; blades — 17.34; bladelets — 14.27; micro-blades — 7.34; burin spalls — 8.08; tools — 6.79 % (table 2). The reduction sequences are based on the flaking of uni-, bidirectional sub-cylindrical and narrow flaking surface unidirectional cores for blades and bladelets (table 3; fig. 2). There is no evidence of micro-blade technology implication. The structure of tool-kit is characterized by the dominance of burins — about 50 %; microliths — 25 %; and truncated pieces — about 18 % (table 4). The rest of tool classes are represented by a few percentages each. Among them are the end-scrapers on blades with truncated base (fig. 3). The most part of burins are represented by pieces made on obliquely truncated blades (table 5; fig. 4). Also, the obliquely truncated blades dominate the truncated pieces assemblage (table 6; fig. 5). The most representative type of microliths is the micro-points with abruptly retouched straight back and obliquely retouched base (table 7; fig. 6). The points, pendants, bracelet fragment made on tusk and perforated fossil marine shells from local chalk deposits are available. The composition of microliths, burins and end-scrapers in Barmaky, 2 tool-kit is characteristic to the cultural layers beyond the dwelling structures on such base-camps as Mezhyrich (fig. 7). Also, the presences of pits and fauna composition are close to what expected from Epigravettian base-camps. The artifacts assemblage of Barmaky, 2 belongs to the Mizyn industry. Also, Barmaky, 2 is the earliest manifestation of Epigravettian in the Mid Dnieper basin.

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Published
2020-12-22
How to Cite
Chabai, V. P., Stupak, D. V., Veselsky, A. P., & Dudnyk, D. V. (2020). BARMAKY SITE IN THE CONTEXT OF EPIGRAVETTIAN OF THE MIDDLE DNIEPER BASIN. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 107-125. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.04.08