FORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF UKRAINE IN COSSACK TIME. STEPPE IMPACT


Keywords: nomads, Ukraine, late Middle Ages, anthropology.

Abstract

The anthropological type of Ukrainians of Cossack Era was formed on the Old Rus anthropological substrate. They were mostly descendants of the inhabitants of former lands of Drevlyani, Volynyani, Tivertsy and partly Galichani. They were characterized by a combination of a broad face with a dolichocranial or mesocranial skull. People from non-Slavic groups, including ones from the steppe zone, also took part in the formation of the anthropological composition of the late medieval population of Ukraine. Mostly it was a population that was genetically related to the groups that had ancient roots in the Turkic-speaking world. It was characterized by a Zlivkin morphological complex (brachycranium, a relatively broad face that had a weakened horizontal profile at the top). The type is Caucasian, it was widespread in large areas occupied by the Saltovo-Mayatska culture. It was characteristic for the population of Khazaria, the medieval cities of Crimea, the plains of the North Caucasus, the southern Bulgarians. For the population of Volga Bulgaria, the appearance of this morphological complex is associated with the movement of the early Bulgarians genetically related to the Sarmatians.

The type continued to dominate in some areas during the Golden Horde and after the Golden Horde Age. Its presence is recorded in the south of Ukraine and in Moldova. The infiltration of the descendants of this population into the Slavic environment of Ukraine took place in different ways.

The source territories for it could be the Lower Dnieper and the Prut-Dniester interfluve. The time of infiltration is most likely the second half of the 13th—15th centuries. Single skulls which are characterized by a tall face with a sharp horizontal profile and can be associated with people from the North Caucasus are recorded in the late medieval cemeteries of Ukraine.

Skulls with clearly defined Mongoloid features practically are not found in the late medieval Christian cemeteries of Ukraine. Groups of nomads with these features (from Cumans to Nogai Tartars) are anthropologically differ as far as possible from the population of Cossack Era Ukraine, which was buried in Christian cemeteries.

References

Akimova, M. S. 1964. Materialy k antropologii rannih bolgar. In: Gening, V. F., Halikov, A. H. Rannie bolgary na Volge. Moskva: Nauka, s. 177-196.

Aleksieiev, V. P. 1962. Antropolohiia Saltivskoho mohylnyka. Materialy z antropolohii Ukrainy, 2, s. 48-87.

Alekseev, V. P. 1969. Proishozhdenie narodov Vostochnoj Evropy. Moskva: Nauka.

Aleksieiev, V. P. 1971. Materialy do antropolohichnoi kharakterystyky ukrainskoho narodu. Materialy z antropolohii Ukrainy, 5, s. 30-545.

Alekseev, V. P. 1980. Harakteristika kraniologicheskih materialov iz pozdnih musul’manskih zahoronenij Kryma. Issledovaniya po paleoantropologii i kraniologii SSSR. Muzej antropologii i еtnografii AN SSSR, 36, s. 169-181.

Alekseev, V. P. 2009. Proishozhdenie narodov Kavkaza. In: Alekseev, V. P. Izbrannoe v 5 t. Moskva: Nauka.

Alekseev, V. P., Gohman, I. I. 1984. Antropologiya aziatskoi chasti SSSR. Moskva: Nauka.

Alekseeva, T. I., Kozlovskaya, M. V. 2002. Antropologicheskij oblik naseleniya. In: Alekseeva, T. I., Buzhilova, A. P., Vinnikov, A. Z., Volkov, I. V., Kozlovskaya, M. V., Lebedinskaya, G. V., Mednikova, M. B., Czy’bin, M. V. Novohar’kovskij mogil’nik epohi Zolotoj Ordy. Voronezh: VGU, s. 111-119.

Balabanova, M. A. 1999. Antropologicheskij sostav i prishozhdenie naseleniya Czarevskogo gorodishha. Istoriko-arkheologicheskie issledovaniya v Nizhnem Povolzhje, 3, s. 199-228

Biliaieva, S. O. 2012. Slovianski ta tiurkski svity v Ukraini (z istorii vzaiemyn u XIII—XVIII st.). Kyiv: Universytet Ukraina.

Bubenok, O. 2001. Poshyrennia hristianstva sered alaniv Pivnichnoho Prychornomoria. Shidnyi svit, 1, s. 15-36.

Velikanova, M. S. 1975. Paleoantropologiya Prutsko-Dnestrovskogo mezhdurechya. Moskva: Nauka.

Gerasimova, M. M. 1996. Kraniologicheskie materialy k etnogenezu severokavkazskih narodov. Vestnik antropologii, 2, s. 156-167.

Gerasimova, M. M., Rud’, N. M., Yablonskij, L. T. 1987. Antropologia antichnogo i srednego naseleniya Vostochnoj Evropy. Moskva: Nauka.

Grek, I. F. 2013. Chernye bolgary: etnicheskaya istoriya i istoricheskaya sud’ba. Stratum plus, 3, s. 307-332.

Debecz, G. F. 1948. Paleoantropologiya SSSR. Trudy instituta etnografii, novaya seriya, 4. Moskva; Leningrad: MGU.

Dolzhenko, Yu. V. 2012. Antropolohichni materialy mohylnyka kozatskoho chasu Liutenka. In: Otroshchenko, V. V. (ed.). Problemy doslidzhennia pamiatok arkheolohii Skhidnoi Ukrainy (pamiati S.N.Bratchenka). Luhansk: Elton-2, s. 487-507.

Dolzhenko, Yu. V. 2020. Kraniolohiia zolotoordynskoho chasu z ponyzzia Psla. Istorychna antropolohiia ta bioarkheolohiia Ukrainy, 2, s. 108-124.

Yelnikov, M. V. 2008. Zolotoordynski chasy na ukrainskykh zemliakh. Kyiv: Nash chas.

Zinevych, H. P. 1960. Materialy do vyvchennia antropolohichnykh osoblyvostei cherepiv z Kairskoho mohylnyka X—XIII st. Materialy z antropolohii Ukrainy, 1, s. 98-101.

Konduktorova, T. S. 1957. Paleoantropologicheskie materialі iz srednevekovogo Kamenskogo mogil’nika. Sovetskaya arkheologia, 1, s. 55-59.

Konduktorova, T. S. 1984. Paleoantropologicheskie materialy iz Mayaczkogo mogil’nika. In: Pletneva, S. A. (ed.). Mayaczkoe gorodishhe: Trudy sovetsko-bolgarskoj ekspediczii. Moskva: Nauka, s. 200-237.

Konduktorova, T. S., Segeda, S. P. 1990. Kraniologicheskaya i odontologicheskaya harakteristika lyudej saltovo-mayaczkoj kul’tury iz sela Dmitrievskoe. Voprosy antropologii, 78, s. 69-81.

Kotliar, M. F. 1969. Khto taki brodnyky? Ukrainskyi istorychnyi zhurnal, 5, s. 95-101.

Krucz, S. I. 2003. Antropologicheskaya harakteristika nogajczev XVI—XVIII vv. Prilozhenie. Materialy po izucheniyu istoriko-kul’turnogo naslediya Severnogo Kavkaza, 4, s. 206-239.

Kruts, S. I., Lytvynova, L. V. 2003. Antropolohichnyi sklad naselennia Pivdennoho Podniprovia za materialamy mohylnyka BlahovishchenkaArkheolohichni vidkryttia v Ukraini 2001—2002 rr., s. 143-149.

Litopys… 1989. Litopys Ruskyi za Ipatskym spyskom pereklad Makhnovets. Kyiv: Dnipro.

Lytvynova, L. V. 2012. Naselennia Nyzhnioho Podniprovia 12 — pochatku 15 st. Kyiv: IA NAN Ukrainy.

Motsia, O. P. 2000. Rus i kochovyi svit stepiv. In: Tolochko, P. P. (ed.) Davnia istoriia Ukrainy. 3. Kyiv: Polihrafknyha, s. 558-573.

Nadzhimov, K. N. 1955. O cherepah Zlivkinskogo mogil’nika. Kratkie soobshheniya Institut etnografii AN SSSR, 24, s. 147-155.

Pletneva, S. A. 1981. Pechenegi, torki, polovczy. In: Rybakov, B. A. (ed.). Stepi Evrazii v epohu srednevekovya. Arheologiya SSSR. Moskva: Nauka, s. 213-221.

Potekhina, I. D. 2020. Kraniolohichnyi kompleks meshkantsiv mistechka Staiky XVII st. i yoho pokhodzhennia. Istorychna antropolohiia ta bioarkheolohiia Ukrainy, 2, s. 125-139.

Rudich, T. A. 2000. K voprosu ob antropologicheskom sostave naseleniya Ukrainy XVI—XVII vv. Stepi Ukrainy v epohu srednevekovya, 1, s. 381-391.

Rudych, T. O. 2008. Antropolohichni materialy z rozkopok tsvyntaria na terytorii Mykhailivskoho Zolotoverkhoho monastyria. Arkheolohia, 4, s. 49-54.

Rudych, T. O. 2014. Naselennia Serednoho Podniprovia I—II tys. za materialamy antropolohii. Kyiv: IA NAN Ukrainy.

Rudych, T. O. 2019. Kochova skladova naselennia Serednoho Podniprovia (Pravoberezhzhia) davnioruskoi doby za materialamy antropolohii. Arkheolohia, 4, s. 43-49.

Rudych, T. O., Tolkachev, Yu. I. 2006. Antropolohichni materialy z Medzhybozha. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia v Ukraini 2004-2005 rr., s. 446-448.

Russev, N. D. 2016. Karpatsko-Dunajskie zemli v epohu Dzhuchidov. Stratum plus, 6, s. 165-181.

Tyshchenko, K. 2010. Inshomovni toponimy Ukrainy. Ternopil: Mandrivets.

Tolochko, P. P. 1999. Kochevye narody stepej i Kievskaya Rus’. Kiev: Abris.

Fedorov-Davy’dov, G. A.1981. Mongol’skoe zavoevanie i Zolotaya Orda. In: Rybakov, B. A. (ed.). Stepi Evrazii v epohu srednevekovya. Arheologiya SSSR. Moskva: Nauka, s. 229-236.

Cherkas, B. 2014. Zakhidni volodinnia Ulusu Dzhuchy: politychna istoriia, terytorialno administratyvnyi ustrii, ekonomika, mista (XIII—XIV st.). Kyiv.

Yakovenko, N. 2009. Narysy istorii seredniovichnoi ta rannomodernoi Ukrainy. Kyiv: Krytyka.

Dolzhenko, Yu. V. 2014. Craniological characteristics of the Baturyn’s population in 17—18 centuries. Nizhynska starovyna, 18 (21): Pamiatkoznavstvo Pivnichnoho rehionu Ukrainy, 6, p. 40-56.


Abstract views: 60
PDF Downloads: 80
Published
2020-12-30
How to Cite
Rudych, T. O. (2020). FORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF UKRAINE IN COSSACK TIME. STEPPE IMPACT . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 268-276. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.04.21