THE KURGANS OF BUDZHAK EXPLORED BY F. I. KNAUER: HISTORY OF EXCAVATION, CARTOGRAPHY AND MODERN STATE


Keywords: Budzhak, рrof. F. Knauer, barrows, history of field works, topography, cartography, state of explored objects.

Abstract

The article is observed the archeological activity of the native of German colony of Sarata in Budzhak and the author of first excavations of the barrows of this region, Professor F. I. Knauer. Fedor (Friedrich) Ivan Knauer (1849—1917) graduated the Sarata Teachers College (1865). He studied linguistics, Sanskrit and German at the Universities of Jena and Tubingen, graduated the University of Derpt (1882) where he defended his doctoral thesis (1884). After that he worked at St. Vladimir University in Kiev as Professor of the Department of Comparative Linguistics and Sanskrit (from 1886 to 1915). He participated the XI Archaeological Congress in Kiev (1899), XIII (1902, Hamburg) and XVI (1912, Athens) international congresses of orientalists.

The scholar engaged in archaeology under the influence of members of the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronist, in particular Professor V. B. Antonovich. One of his tasks was to gather the collection for the creation of the archaeological museum at St. Vladimir’s University. The fieldwork of the scholar in 1888—1889, 1891, and 1899 are described in the paper. During these works he examined 11 barrows on the banks of the rivers Sarat and Kogylnik and found 75—77 graves which were compiled to the chrono-stratigraphic column of burials from the Eneolithic to the Middle Ages. In the special annex to the paper the materials of research of the author of 2018 were revealed, during which the state of the majority of thebarrows of F. I. Knauer was discovered and some of which are proposed to be excavated

References

Antonovich, V. B. 1889. Zakliuchenie o zamechatelnykh osobennostiakh, predstavlennykh raskopkoi F. I. Knauera. Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 3, s. 26, 48.
Antonovich, V. B. 1890. Dopolnenie k soobshcheniiu F. I. Knauera (o raskopkakh 1889 g.). Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 4, I, s. 15.
Antonovich, V. B. 1892. Vyvody o raskopkakh, proizvedennykh g. Knauerom (v 1891 g.). Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 6, I, s. 13.
Berg, L. S. 1918. Bessarabiia: strana, liudi, khoziaistvo. Petrograd: Ogni.
Vanchugov, V. P. 1998. Kimeriiskie pogrebeniia Iuzhnoi Bessarabii (iz kollektsii Natsionalnogo istoricheskogo muzeia). In: Stanko, V. N. (ed.). Drevnee Prichernomore. Odessa: OGU im. I. Mechnikova, s. 36-41.
Gorkova, A. A. 2013. Arkheologicheskaia deiatelnost chlenov istoricheskogo obshchestva imeni Nestora-letopistsa. Aktualnye problemy gumanitarnykh i estestvennykh nauk, 10—11, s. 83-86.
Hrytsiuta, O. O. 2017a. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia Pivdennoi Bessarabii v istorychnomu tovarystvi Nestora-litopystsia. Istoryia nauki i tekhnyky, 10, s. 144-149.
Hrytsiuta O. O. 2017b. Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia prof. F. I. Knauera u Pivdennii Bessarabii. In: Dobroliubska, Yu. A. (ed.). Istoriosfera. Materialy ХІІ naukovoi konferentsii vykladachiv, studentiv, mahistriv, aspirantiv ta molodykh uchenykh Pivdennoukrainskoho natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu im. K. D. Ushynskoho. Odesa: Universitet Ushynskoho, s. 59-64.
Dluzhnevskaia, G. V. 2014. Arkheologicheskie issledovaniia v Evropeiskoi chasti Rossii i na Kavkaze v 1859—1919 godakh (po dokumentam Nauchnogo arkhiva Instituta istorii materialnoi kultury RAN). Sankt-Peterburg: Lema.
Kashuba, M. T., Sapozhnykov, I. V. 2019. Fakty’ biografii F. I. Knaue’ra iz arhiva Imperatorskoj arxeologicheskoj komissii. Arheologicheskie vesti, 25, c. 291-300.
(Knauer, F. I. 1889a). Chtenie F. I. Knauera o proizvedennoi im raskopke kurganov v Iuzhnoi Bessarabii (O kurganakh, raskopannykh v iuzhnoi Bessarabii). Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 3, I, s. 32-49.
Knauer, F. I. 1889b O raskopke neskolkikh kurganov v Iuzhnoi Bessarabii: Referat, chitannyi prof. F. I. Knauerom v zasedanii IONL 20 noiabria 1888 g. Otdelnyi ottisk. Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 3, 1.
Knauer, F. I. 1890. Vtoraia arkheologicheskaia raskopka okolo sela Saraty (v Iuzhnoi Bessarabii; kurgan N 10). Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 4, II, s. 30-41.
Knauer, F. I. 1892. Rezultaty nebolshoi arkheologicheskoi ekskursii, predpriniatoi po Akkermanskomu uezdu Bessarabskoi gubernii, vesnoi etogo goda (Rezultaty arkheologicheskoi ekskursii v Akkermanskii uezd, predpriniatyi vesnoiu 1891 g.). Chteniia Istoricheskogo obshchestva Nestora-letopistsa, 6, I, s. 5-12.
Knauer, F. 1893a. Raskopki v Bessarabskoi gubernii. Otchet Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1891 god, s. 82-86.
Knauer, F. 1893b. Dnevnik raskopki kurgana u s. Pavlovki, Akkermanskogo uezda Bessarabskoi gubernii, proizvedennoi v 1891 godu. Otchet Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1891 god, s. 160-165.
(Knauer, F.) 1899. Bessarabiia. Akkermanskii uezd. Mogilnik bliz kolonii Sarata, raskopano 3 kurgana. Katalog vystavki XI arkheologicheskjgo sieezda. Kiev: I. N. Kushnerev, s. 74-75.
Knauer, F. I. 1902a. Raskopki v Akkermanskom uezde Bessarabskoi gubernii. Trudy XI arkheologicheskjgo sieezda v Kieve 1899 g., II, s. 150-151.
Knauer, F. I. 1902b. Bessarabiia (o raskopkakh Fridensfeldskikh kurganov v 1899 g.). Otchet Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1899 god, s. 39-41.
(Knauer, F.) 1906. Bessarabskaia gub. Bessarabskii uezd s. Pavlovka. Albom risunkov, pomeshchennykh v Otchetakh Arkheologicheskoi komissii za 1882—1898 gody, s. 35-36.
Kolesnikova, V., Ianenko, A. 2013. Ukrainsko-moldavskie arkheologicheskie issledovaniia 30—40 gg. ХХ stoletiia: plany i realizatsiia. Revista Arheologică, IX, 1, s. 227-235.
Latyshev, V. V. 1892. Nadpisi iz Tiry. Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 9: Drevnosti Iuzhnoi Rossii. Grecheskie i latinskie nadpisi, naidennye v 1889—1891 godakh, s. 58-61.
Markevich, A. I. 1899. XI Kievskii arkheologicheskii sieezd i trudy ego po istorii Novorossiiskogo kraia. Izvestiia Tavricheskoi uchenoi arkhivnoi komissii, 30, s. 65-79.
Matveev, A. A. 1884. K voprosu ob arkheologicheskikh issledovaniiakh v Iuzhnoi Rossii. Odessa: P. A. Zeleniy.
Mozolevskyi, B. M. 1990. Kurhany vyshchoi skifskoi znati i problema politychnoho ustroiu Skifii. Arkheolohiia, 1, s. 122-138.
Musin, A. E. (ed.-comp.). 2009a. Imperatorskaia Arkheologicheskaia Komissiia (1859—1917): K 150-letiiu so dnia osnovaniia. U istokov otechestvennoi arkheologii i okhrany kulturnogo naslediia. Sankt-Peterburg: D. Bulanin.
Musin, A. E. (ed.-comp.). 2009b. Prilozhenie. Imperatorskaia Arkheologicheskaia Komissiia (1859—1917): K 150-letiiu so dnia osnovaniia. U istokov otechestvennoi arkheologii i okhrany kulturnogo naslediia. Sankt-Peterburg: D. Bulanin.
Oboldueva, T. G. 1955. Kurgan epokhi bronzy na r. Kogilnik. Izvestiia Moldavskogo filiala AN SSSR, 5 (25), s. 31—48.
Otroshchenko, V. V. 2016. Kuliab-Mohyla. Entsyklopediia suchasnoi Ukrainy, 16. Access mode: http://esu.com.ua/search_articles.php?id=51563 (Date of the application 06.02.2019).
Perechnevaia… 1903. Perechnevaia opis predmetam drevnosti, dostavlennym prof. Knauerom iz raskopok, proizvedennykh v 1899 g. u s. Fridensfeld Akkermanskogo uezda Bessarabskoi gub. NA ІA NANU, f. 13, 57.
Petrenko, V. G. 1998. Eneoliticheskii kurgan u s. Sarata. In: Subbotin, L. V., Dzigovskii, A. N., Ostroverkhov, A. S. Arkheologicheskie drevnosti Budzhaka. Kurgany u sel Vishnevoe i Belolese. Odessa: Unda, s. 159-164.
Sapozhnykov, I. V. 2004. Fakty iz istorii opisaniia i izucheniia kurganov Severnogo Prichernomoria. Starozhytnosti Stepovoho Prychornomor’ia i Krymu, ХI, s. 230-234.
Sapozhnykov, I. 2018a. Iz istorii izucheniia imennykh kurganov Iuga Vostochnoi Evropy: raboty P. I. Keppena 1820-kh — 1850-kh godov. Emіnak, 2 (22), І, s. 15-24.
Sapozhnykov, I. 2018b. Kurgan Mogila Voznesenskaia na beregu Nizhnego Dnestra po kartam i opisaniiam. Pіvdennii zakhіd. Odesika, 25, s. 8-24.
Sapozhnykov, I. 2018c. Nachala izucheniia kurganov Budzhaka: istoriografiia i kartografiia. Tyragetia, XІІ (XXVIІ), 1, s. 121-139.
Sapozhnykov, I., Argatiuk, S. 2018. Aleksandr Olofson — polkovnik, pomeshchik i pervyi arkheolog Budzhaka. Scriptorium nostrum, 1 (10), s. 99-116.
Sapozhnykov, I. V., Boltryk, Yu. V. 2018. Yahorlytski kurhany na livoberezhzhi Dnistra: istoriia vyvchennia, kartohrafiia ta topohrafiia. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1 (26), s. 45-65.
Sapozhnykov, I., Prysiazhniuk, O. 2018. Kurhany F. I. Knauera ta naibilshi mohyly epokhy bronzy Budzhaka i Ukrainy. In: I-i Vseukrainskyi arkheolohichnyi z’izd. Prohrama roboty ta anotatsii dopovidei. Kyiv: IA NANU, s. 95.
Sikorskii, I. A. 1889. Zakliuchenie s antropologicheskoi tochki zreniia o cherepakh, naidennykh F. I. Knauerom. Chteniia v Istoricheskom obshchestve Nestora-letopistsa, 3, I, s. 26, 48-49.
Sorokina, S. A. 2005. Kam’iani navershia bulav doby eneolitu ta bronzy (na osnovi kolektsii Natsionalnoho muzeiu istorii Ukrainy). Magisterium, 20: Arkheolohichni studii, s. 36-43.
Universytetskyi… 1992. Universytetskyi kataloh Natsionalnoho muzeia istorii Ukrainy. Kyiv, 1, 2.
Cherkazianova, I. V. Knauer (Knauer) Fridrikh (Fedor) Ivanovich (1849—1917), sanskritolog, doktor sravnitelnogo iazykoznaniia. In: Entsiklopediia nemtsev Rossii. Access mode: http://www.enc.rusdeutsch.ru/articles/3632 (Date of the application 01.02.2019).
Cherkazianova, I. V. 2015. Antinemetskie nastroeniia v universitetskom soobshchestve i sudba professora F. I. Knauera. Visnyk Odeskogo istoryko-krayeznavchogo muzeyu, 14, s. 24-30.
Cherniakov, I., T. 1963. Arkheologicheskie razvedki 1961 g. v iugo-zapadnykh raionakh Odesskoi oblasti. Kratkie soobshcheniia Odesskogo gosudarstvennogo arkheologicheskogo muzeia 1961, s. 47-60.
Cherniakov, I. T. 1964. Pozdnetripolskii kurgan u s.Sarata Odesskoi oblasti. Kratkie soobshcheniia Odesskogo gosudarstvennogo arkheologicheskogo muzeia 1962, s. 32-45.
Shmaglii, N. M., Cherniakov, I. T. 1970. Kurgany stepnoi chasti mezhdurechia Dunaia i Dnestra (1964—1966 gg.). Materialy po arkheologii Severnogo Prichernomoria, 6, s. 5-115.
Ebergardt, Ia. 1916. Pamiatniki stariny i arkheologicheskie nakhodki v Bessarabii. Kishinev: Bessarabskaia zhizn.
Iarovoi, E. 2014. Nachalo izucheniia kurganov Bessarabii. In: Paslaru, S. (ed.). Kallatida. Mangalia: Callasprint, s. 349-362.
Fiess, Ch. 1979. Heimatbuch Sarata 1822—1940. Mьhlacker: Selbstverlag.
Sarata, Bessarabia births 1844, 1849, 1865, 1866, 1872, 1873, 1880 by R. Reuben Drefs Collection. Access mode: http://www.blackseagr.org/pdfs/drefs/sarata-births-misc.pdf (Date of the application 06.02.2019).

Abstract views: 95
PDF Downloads: 164
Published
2019-12-25
How to Cite
SapozhnykovІ. V. (2019). THE KURGANS OF BUDZHAK EXPLORED BY F. I. KNAUER: HISTORY OF EXCAVATION, CARTOGRAPHY AND MODERN STATE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 33(4), 396-422. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.04.32