PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS ON PALEOANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIAL FROM RURAL BURIALS OF 14th—16th CENTURIES FROM THE TERRITORY OF POLOTSK LAND


Keywords: rural population of the Belarusian Dvina region of 14th—16th centuries, osteology, paleopathology, degenerative-dystrophic changes, injuries, dental pathologies, non-specific reactions of the body.

Abstract

Paleopathology deals with the identification and research of diseases that are fixed on the osteological material of ancient people. This anthropological direction, using a variety of methods, answers the questions of the origin and spread of diseases in ancient populations. The results of such studies help to reveal the following aspects: the influence of the environment, and consequently the adaptation of a person to its changes, professional occupations of the population, and related types of physical activity, diet, causes of physiological stress and the level of development of medicine.

The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of the rural population of the Belarusian Dvina region of the 14th16th centuries by conducting a paleopathological study of bone material.

During the study, an anthropological examination of the remains of 72 people belonging to the rural population of the 14th16th centuries was carried out. The osteological material was obtained during the archaeological excavations of three rural burial grounds in the Belarusian Dvina region-Ives, Biruli, and Dolgoe. During the research, special attention was paid to the identification and registration of paleopathological changes in bone material.

As a result, signs of the following groups of pathologies were identified: degenerative-dystrophic changes in the spine and joints, skull injuries, dental system pathologies (caries, abscesses, paradontopathies), nonspecific reactions of the body (porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, enamel hypoplasia, vascular reaction).

As a result of the work performed to identify and interpret pathological changes, the main aspects reflecting changes in the health status of the ancient population due to a number of factors were identified: the manifestation of an active lifestyle of individuals, the influence of sanitary and hygienic conditions that existed in rural settlements of the studied period, and the supposed stressful situations to which the population was more or less exposed.

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Published
2020-12-15
How to Cite
Hrytskevich, D. S. (2020). PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS ON PALEOANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIAL FROM RURAL BURIALS OF 14th—16th CENTURIES FROM THE TERRITORY OF POLOTSK LAND . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 283-291. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.04.23