• G. O. Pashkevych Botanical Museum of the National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine
Keywords: palaeoethnobotanica (archaeobotanica), Dmytro Ya. Telehin, territory of Ukraine, flotation, origin of millet.


The territory of Ukraine was the first on the path of the Neolithic tribes to the territory of the East European Plain. These tribes brought here cultivated plants with the skills of their cultivation (hulled wheat, barley, legumes) from the center of origin, from Asia Minor through the Balkan Peninsula. N. I. Vavilov considered that the territory of Ukraine together with Moldova was one of the ancient places of farmers culture. He received confirmation of his assumption about the existence of crops of ancient hulled wheat in the closed mountainous regions of the Carpathians. In 1940 he found a hulled wheat Triticum dicoccum in the vicinity of the village of Putila near Chernivtsi.

Recently thanks to modern research and radiocarbon dates on charred broomcorn millet grains Ukraine has a gateway through which millet from China, the birthplace of its origin, has spread to Europe. The earliest radiocarbon date (1631—1455 cal BC) in Europe is coming from the site Vinogradnyi Sad of Sabatynivka culture, Bronze Age. This date was received thanks to the European program «When and Where broomcorn millet arrived in Europe». Reports of much earlier occurrences of millet in Neolithic — Early Bronze Age (6th — early 3rd millennium BC) were almost entirely based on millet-looking impressions in pottery, daub and figurines. A recent re-examination of these impressions on figurines from the Usatovo culture with using a scanning electron microscope excluded millet grains as a source for some of the imprints. European researchers show great interest in archaeobotanical records of the crop from archaeological excavations of the territory of Ukraine. The use of modern research methods such as a scanning electron microscope, stable isotope evidence, modernized radiocarbon dating, chemical analysis of microparticles using a mass spectrometer, and analysis of DNA will allow a new look at the earliest obtained results.


Bahteev, F. H. 1960. Polba (Triticum dicoccum Schubl.), najdennaya N. I. Vavilovym v Karpatah. In: Voprosy evolyuczii, biogeografii, genetiki i selekczii. Moskva; Leningrad: AN SSSR, s. 59-60.

Haskevych, D. L., Endo, E., Nasu, Kh. 2020. Novi arkheobotanichni doslidzhennia keramiky subneolitychnoho poselennia Bazkiv Ostriv na Pivdennomu Buzi (z vykorystanniam Replica-SEM metodu). Arkheolohia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 1 (34), s. 181-191.

Horbenko, K. V., Pashkevych, H. O. 2010. Paleoetnobotanichni doslidzhennia na terytorii horodyshcha Dykyi Sad. Eminak, 1—4 (5), s. 5-19.

Zbenovich, V. G., Pashkevich, G. A. 1988. K harakteristike zemledeliya Tripol’skoj kul’tury (rannij etap). Studia praehistoria, 9, s. 179-193.

Kuz’minova, N. N., Petrenko, V. G. 1989. Kul’turnye rasteniya na Zapade Severnogo Prichernomorya v seredine 3—2-om tys. Do n. e. (po dannym paleobotaniki). In: Problemy drevnej istorii i arkheologii Ukrainskoj SSR. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 119-120.

Pashkevich, G. A. 1991a. Paleoetnobotanicheskie nakhodki na territorii Ukrainy (neolit—bronza). Katalog. Preprint, Kiev.

Pashkevich, G. A. 1991b. Paleoetnobotanicheskie nakhodki na territorii Ukrainy. Pamiatniki І-go tys. do n. e. — ІІ tys. n. e. Katalog 1. Preprint, Kiev.

Pashkevich, G. A. 1991c. Paleoetnobotanicheskie nakhodki na territorii Ukrainy. Pamiatniki І-go tys. do n. e. — ІІ tys. n. e. Katalog 2. Preprint, Kiev.

Pashkevich, G. A. 1991d. Paleoetnobotanicheskie nakhodki na territorii Ukrainy. Drevniaia Rus. Katalog. Preprint, Kiev.

Pashkevych, G. O. 2005. Arkheolohia ta paleoetnobotanika. Arkheolohia, 2, s. 80-88.

Pashkevich, G. O. 2012. Khlib davnoi Ukrainy. Kyiv: Skif.

Pashkevych, G. O. 2015. Rezultaty paleoetnobotanichnoho analizu zalyshkiv roslyn z rozkopok mehastruktury na poselenni bilia s. Nebelivka. In: Na Skhidnii mezhi staroi Yevropy. Materialy Mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii. Kirovohrad, Nebelivka 12—14 travnia 2015. Kirovohrad. S. 44.

Pashkevich, G. A. 2016. Arheobotanicheskie issledovaniya Bospora. Bosporskie issledovaniya, XXXII, s. 205-303.

Pashkevich, G. A. 2017. Paleoetnobotanicheskoe issledovanie pamiatnikov usatovskoi kultury. In: Chelovek v istorii i kulture. Memorialnyi sbornik nauchnykh rabot v pamiat laureata Gosudarstvennoi premii Ukrainy, akademika RAEN, professora, doktora istoricheskikh nauk V. N. Stanko. 3. Odessa: Irbis, s. 363-372.

Pashkevych, G. O., Kostylov, O. M. 1992. Syntaksonomichnyi analiz paleobotanichnykh danykh na prykladi materialiv epokhy bronzy. Oikumena. Ukrainskyi ekolohichnyi visnyk, 3, с. 72-77.

Pashkevych, G. O., Videiko, M. Yu. 2006. Rilnytstvo plemen Trypilskoi kultury. Kyiv.

Pashkevych, G. O., Nepomiashchykh, V. Yu. 2013. Paleobotanichni znakhidky z Bilhoroda Kyivskoho (za rezultatamy arkheolohichnykh doslidzhen 1972 ta 1976 rr.). Arkheolohia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 11, s. 127-132.

Pashkevych, G., Chernovol, D. 2015. Novi paleobotanichni materialy z trypilskykh pamiatok. In: Diachenko, O., Menotti, F., Ryzhov, S., Buniatian, K., Kadrov, S. (eds.). Kulturnyi kompleks Kukuten-Trypillia ta yoho susidy. Zbirka naukovykh prats pamiati Volodymyra Krutsa. Lviv: Astroliabiia, s. 97-110.

Sharafutdinova, I. N. 1986a. Issledovanie poseleniya sabatinovskoj kul’tury na Yuzhnom Buge. Arkheologicheskie otkrytiya 1985 g., s. 432.

Sharafutdinova, I. N. 1986b. Sabatinovskaya kul’tura. In: Berezanskaya, S. S. (ed.). Kul’tury epohi bronzy na territorii Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 83-113.

Ianushevich, Z. V. 1976. Kulturnye rasteniia Iugo-Zapada SSSR po paleobotanicheskim issledovaniiam. Kishinev: Shtiintsa.

Ianushevich, Z. V. 1986. Kulturnye rasteniia Severnogo Prichernomoria. Paleoetnobotanicheskie issledovaniia. Kishinev: Shtiintsa.

An, T., Pashkevich, G., Jones, M. 2018. Re-examining millet impressions in Usatovo clay materials from NW Black Sea region, Ukraine. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences, 11, p. 3201-3211.

Bar-Yosef, O. 2017. Multiple Origins of Agriculture in Eurasia and Africa. In: Tibayrenc, M., Ayala, F. J. (eds.). On Human Nature. Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion. Boston: Academic Press, p. 297-331.

Dal Corso, M., Pashkevych, G., Filipovic, D., Meadows, J., Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute G., Shatilo, L., Kirleis, W. 2019. Tracing and introduction and first dispersal of millet in Ukraine. In: 18th Conference of the International Workgroup for Palaeoethnobotany (Lecce, 3rd—8th June 2019). Lecce: Universitа del Salento, 2019. Program and abstracts, p. 48.

Dennell, R. 1978. Archaeobotany and early farming in Europe. Archaeology, 31, 1), p. 8-13.

Dobney, K., Larson, G. 2006. Genetics and animal domestication: new windows on an elusive process. Journal of Zoology, 269, p. 261-271.

Endo, E., Nasu H., Gaskevych, D, Yanevich, A., Pashkevich, G., Videiko M. 2019. Ukraine as the crossroad for agricultural dispersal in Eurasia. In: 18th Conference of the International Workgroup for Palaeoethnobotany (Lecce, 3rd—8th June 2019). Lecce: Universitа del Salento, 2019. Program and abstracts. p. 27.

Fukunaga, K., Ichitani, K., Kawase, M. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA intergenic spacer subrepeats and its implication for the domestication history of foxtail millet, Setaria italica. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 113, 2, p. 261-269.

Fuller, D. Q. 2006. A Millet Atlas: Some Identification Guidance. London: University College.

Heer, O. 1866. Die Pflanzen der Pfahlbauten. Neujahrsblatt der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zьrich fьr das Jahr 1866, 68, S. 1-54.

Helbaek, H. 1959. Domestication of food plants in the Old World. Science, 130, p. 365-372.

Helbaek, H. 1960. Palaeobotany of the Near East and Europe. In: Braidwood, R. J., Howe, B. (eds.). Prehistoric Investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan. Chicago: University of Chicago. P. 99-118.

Helbaek, H. 1969. Plant collecting, dry-farming and irrigation agriculture in prehistoric Deh Luran. In: Hole, F., Flannery, K. V., Neely, J. A. (eds.). Prehistory and Human Ecology of the Deh Luran Plain. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, p. 383-426.

Hu, Y, Ambrose, S. H, Wang, C. 2006. Stable isotopic analysis of human bones from Jiahu site, Henan, China: implications for the transition to agriculture. Journal of Archaeological Science, 33, p. 1319-1330.

Hunt, H. V., Vander Linden M., Liu, X., Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, G., Colledge, S., Jones, M. K. 2008. Millet across Eurasia: chronology and context of early records of the genera Panicum and Setaria from archaeological sites in the Old World. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17, p. 5-18.

Irvine, B., Erdal, Y. S., Richards, M. P. 2019. Dietary habits in the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC) of Anatolia: A multi-isotopic approach. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24, p. 253-263.

Jacob, J., Disnar J-R., Arnaud, F., Chapron, E., Debret, M., Lallier-Vergиs, E., Desmet, M., Revel-Rolland, M. 2008. Millet cultivation history in the French Alps as evidenced by a sedimentary molecule. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35, p. 814-820.

Janushevich, Z. V. 1978. Prehistoric food in the South-West of the Soviet Union. Bericht Deutche Botanische Geshichte, 91, p. 59-66.

Janushevich, Z. V. 1989. Agricultural evolution north of Black Sea from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. In: Harris, D. R., Hillmann, G. C. (eds.). Foraging and farming. The evolution of plant exploitation. London, p. 607-619.

Jones, G., Valamoti, S., Charles, M. 2000. Early Crop diversity: a «new» glume wheat from northern Greece. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 9, p. 133-146.

Kunth, C. 1826. Examen botanique des fruits et des plantes. In: Passalacqua, J. (ed.). Catalogue raisonnй et historique des antiquitйs dйcouvertes en Йgypte. Paris, p. 227-229.

Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, G., Richard, A., Staff, Z., Harriet, V., Hunt, H., Xinyi, L., Martin, K. 2013. The early chronology of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Europe. Antiquity, 87, p. 1073-1085.

Pashkevich, G. 2003. Palaeoethnobotanical evidence of agriculture in the steppe and the forest-steppe of East Europe in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age. In: Levine, M., Renfrew, C., Boyle, K. (eds.). Prehistoric steppe adaptation and the horse. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, p. 287-297.

Pashkevych, G. 2012. Environment and economic activities of Neolithic and Bronze population of Northern Pontic area. Quaternary International, 261, p. 176-182.

Price, T. D., Bar-Yosef, O. 2011. The origine of agriculture. New data, new ideas. Current Antropology, 52, S4, p. 163-174.

Struever, S. 1968. Flotation techniques for the recovery of small-scale Archaeological remains. American Antiquity, 33, p. 353-362.

Ushino, T. Tagawa, H. 1991. Replication method of the impression on the pottery surface. Archaeology and Natural Science, 24, p. 13-36. (in Japanese).

Zeist, W van. Wasylikowa, K. Behre, K.-E. (eds.). 1991. Progress in Old World palaeoethnobotany. A retrospective view on occasion of 20 years of International Work Group for Palaeoethnobotany. Rotterdam; Brookfield: A. A. Balkema.

Abstract views: 6
PDF Downloads: 7
How to Cite
Pashkevych, G. O. (2020). THE CURRENT STATE OF ARCHAEOBOTANICAL STUDY IN UKRAINE . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 292-298.