WESTERN GEORGIA AS A TRANSITIONAL ZONE IN MIGRATION OF THE PROTONEOLITHIC GROUPS TO EASTERN EUROPE


Keywords: Kobuleti industry, M’lefaatian, Kukrekian, neolithisation, migration, pressing technique.

Abstract

The issue of studying the global migration of the population of the Near and Middle East to the territory of Eastern Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and at the beginning of the Holocene is analyzed in the paper.

At the turn of Pleistocene-Holocene the stone industries with similar characteristics in Iran, Iraq, Georgia and Ukraine one can observe. These industries are called M’lefaatian, Kobuletian, Kukrekian. These industries were characterized by using the pressing technique to produce blades, bladelets and microblades; using bladelets with abrupt retouch to make complex bone arrowheads. At the very end of the Pleistocene, the migration of the M’lefaatian population began. The stone industry of the first wave of migrants was associated with elements of the Zarzian industry. In the future, waves of M’lefaatian migrants poured innovative technologies related to the production of stone vessels, grooved tools, pottery into the territory of Western Georgia and Ukraine. The most important role in the development of Eastern European culture was the change in the funeral rite at the Boreal-Atlantic border, when the funeral traditions of M’lefaatian fell into the territory of Ukraine. The migration process ends with the transition to the Neolithic and to farming in the second half of 7th thousand BC.

Analysis of the synchronous development of M’lefaatian, Kobuletian, Kukrekian allows us to conclude that the migration of the M’lefaatian population has been permanent in nature for 3—4 thousand years. Small population groups created a constant influx of population into the territory of Georgia and Ukraine. Some groups made shuttle migrations. All this created the conditions for a constant exchange of innovative technologies for the population of the Northern Black Sea Region and the Middle East. The result of this process was the transition of M’lefaatian migrants to a Neolithic lifestyle. The study of M’lefaatian migration creates the conditions for studying the patterns of transition to the Neolithic in the South Caucasus and Eastern Europe.

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Published
2020-12-29
How to Cite
Manko, V. O., & ChkhatarashvіlіG. L. (2020). WESTERN GEORGIA AS A TRANSITIONAL ZONE IN MIGRATION OF THE PROTONEOLITHIC GROUPS TO EASTERN EUROPE . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 37(4), 329-339. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.04.27