TREPANATION IN THE SARMATIANS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION (Revisiting its Causes and Origins)


  • E. V. Pererva Volgograd State University
Keywords: Trepanation, sarmatians, ancient societies, skull, Early Iron Age, the Lower Volga region.

Abstract

Skull trepanation of the is one of the most frequently performed operations on human skull by modern and ancient surgeons. Trepanation is often associated in the scientific literature with such widespread manipulations in ancient peoples’ bodies as deliberate head or extremities deformation, scalping, artificial scarification, decapitation and truncation of limbs, etc. Nowadays, it is known that trepanation is therapeutic or ritual manipulation done in vivo or posthumous. Also skull trepanation is performed by various techniques. The definition of all these criteria allows anthropologists to evaluate the nature of the development of medical knowledge of ancient societies, to determine the degree of technical sophistication of ancient doctors, to understand the traditions and customs of peoples who lived on earth in the distant past.

The paper is an attempt to summarize and consider cases of craniotomy on craniological materials dating back to the Sarmatian era. Evaluation of the described fixed manipulations from the point of view of the technique of carrying out the operations and the reasons for their conduct is also given in the study. An attempt was made to find the sources of the spread of the tradition of skull trepanation in the nomadic peoples of the Early Iron Age who inhabited the Lower Volga region.

References

Acikkol, A., Gunay, i., Akpolat. E., Gulec, E. 2009. A middle bronze age case of trephination from central Anatolia, Turkey. Bulletin International Association Paleodontology, 3, 2, p. 28-39.
Brothwell, D.R. 1994. Ancient Trephining: Multi-focal evolution or Trans-World Diffusion? Journal of Paleopathology, 6, 3, p. 129-139.
Brothwell. D.R. 1972. Digging up Bones. London: Trustees of British Museum.
Campillo. D., Safont, S., Malagosa, A., Puchalt, F.-J. 1999. Four trepanned skull from 5th and 16th century in Spain. Surgery or ritual? Cronos, 2, 2, p. 261-283.
Chorney, M. A., Gandhi, Ch. D., M. D., Prestigiacomo, Ch. J. 2014. Berengario’s drill: origin and inspiration. Neurosurgery Focus, 36, 4, p. 1-7.
Crubezy, E., Bruzek, J., Guilaine, J., Cunha, E., Rouge, D., Jelinek, J. 2001. The antiquity of cranial surgery in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin. Earth and Planetary Sciences, 332, p. 417-423.
Drennan, M. R. 1937. Some Evidence for a Trepanation Cult in the Bushman Race. Medical Journal, Maart 27, p. 3-6.
Erdal, Y. S., Erdal, O. D. 2011. A Review of Trepanations in Anatolia with New Cases. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 21, p. 505-534.
Kurin, D. S. 2013. Trepanation in South-Central Peru During the Early Late Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1000—1250). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 152, p. 484-494.
Likovsky, Ja., Malykova, Dr., Brzobohata, H., Stranska, P. 2010. Causation and methods of skull trepanation in the past from the point of view of the latest findings from the Czech territory. Anthropologie, XLVIII, 1, p. 19-32.
Missios Symeon, M. D. 2007. Hippocrates, Galen, and the uses of trepanation in the classical world. Neurosurg. Focus, 23, p. 1-9.
Murphy, E. M. 2003. Trepanations and Perforated Crania from Iron Age South Siberia: An Exercise in Differential Diagnosis. In: Arnott, R., Finger, S., Smith, C. U. M. (eds.). Trepanation: History, discovery, theory. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger Publishers, p. 209-221.
Nemeskeri, J., Kralovansky, A., Harsanyi, L. 1965. Trephined skulls from the tenth century. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, XVII, p. 343-367.
Nystrom, K. C. 2007. Trepanation in the Chachapoya region of Northern Peru. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 17, 1, p. 39-51.
Pitsios, Th., Zafiri, V. 2012. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 5, 3, p. 239-245.
Rawlings, Ch. R., Rossitch, E. 1994. The History of Trephination in Africa with a Discussion of Its Current Status and Continuing Practice. Surgical Neurology, 41, p. 507-513.
Rubini, M. 2008. A Case of Cranial Trepanation in a Roman Necropolis (Cassino, Italy, 3rd Century BC). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 18, p. 95-99.
Sankhyan, A. R., Weber, G. H. J. 2001. Evidence of Surgery in Ancient India: Trepanation at Burzahom (Kashmir) over 4000 Years Ago. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 11, p. 375-380.
The Cambridge… 1998. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology by Arthur C. Aufderheide & Conrado Rodriguez-Martin. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Tiago, T., Ana Maria, S., Collado, G. H., Oosterbeek, L. 2015—2016. Prehistoric trepanation in the Iberian Peninsula: a new case from the province of Badajoz (Extremadura, Spain). Antropologia Portuguesa, 32—33, p. 47-60.
Verano, J. W. 2003. Trepanation in Prehistoric Souht America: Geographic and Temporal Trends over 2,000 Years. In: Trepanation. History, Discovery, Theory. Lisse; Abingdon; Exton; Tokio: Swets & Zeitlinger, p. 223-236.
Wikinson, R. G. 1975. Trephination by drilling in ancient Mexico. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 51, 7, p. 838-850.
Wilson Parry, T., Cantab, M. D. 1968. Trephination of the living human skull in prehistoric times. The British Medical Journal, 1923, p. 457-461.
Abramova, S. A. 1968. Novye pogrebeniya sarmatskogo vremeni iz Kabardino-Balkarii. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 3, s. 114-130.
Anuchin, D. N. 1895. Amulet iz chelovecheskogo cherepa i trepanacziya cherepov v drevnosti, v Rossii. Trudy XIV arkheologicheskogo sieezda, 1, 4, s. 18.
Balabanova, M. A., Pererva, E. V. Klepikov, V. M., Krivosheev, M. V., Demkin, V. A., Eltsov, M. V., Skripkin, A. S., Udaltsov, S. N., Iavorskaia, L. V., Diachenko, A. N. 2014. Kurganny mogilnik Peregruznoe I: rezultaty mezhdiscziplinarnykh issledovanij. Volgograd: FGBOU VPO RANXiGS.
Bejsenov, A. Z., Ismagulova, A. O., Kitov, E. P., Kitova, A. O. 2015. Naselenie Tsentralnogo Kazakhstana v I tysyacheletii do n. e. Almaty: Institut arxeologii im. A. Hk. Margulana.
Bejsenov, A. Z., Kitov, E. P. 2014. Posmertnaya trepanatsiya cherepov v elitnykh zakhoroneniyakhx sakskoj epokhi Tsentralnogo Kazaxstana. Izvestiya AltGU, 4-2, 84, s. 31-41.
Boev, P., Ismagulov, O. 1962. Trepanirovanny cherep iz Kazakhskoj SSR. Sovetskaya etnografiya, 2, s. 131-132.
Buzhilova, A. P., Dobrovol’skaya, M. V., Mednikova, M. B. 2006. K probleme rekonstruktsii sotsialnykh vzaimootnoshenij naseleniya Barabinskoj stepi (analiz travm i povrezhdenij po antropologicheskim materialam serii Sopka 2). Arkheologiya, etnografiya i antropologiya Evrazii, s. 148-156.
Vdovchenkov, E. V., Ilyashenko, S. M. 2016. Drevnie ogrableniya nekropolya Tanaisa (k postanovke problemy). Trudy IIMK RAN, 46; Drevnie nekropoli i poseleniya: postpogrebal’nye ritualy, simvolicheskie zaxoroneniya i ogrableniya, s. 157-168.
Gavrilyuk, N. A., Timchenko, N. P. 2016. Fenomen ogrableniya stepnykh skifskikh pogrebenij v «makroekonomike» Severnogo Prichernomoria. Trudy IIMK RAN, 46; Drevnie nekropoli i poseleniya: postpogrebal’nye ritualy, simvolicheskie zaxoroneniya i ogrableniya, s. 129-133.
Gippokrat, 1936. Izbrannye knigi. Moskva: Gos. izd-vo biol. i med. lit.
Gokhman, I. I. 1980. Paleoantropologiya i doistoricheskaya meditsina. In: Alekseeva, T. I. (ed.). Antropologiya meditsine. Moskva: MGU, s. 5-16.
Grach, A. D. 1980. Drevnie kochevniki v tsentre Azii. Moskva: Nauka.
Grigor’eva, M. A., Leonova, S. G. 2015. «Strah i trepet»: obryad obezvrezhivaniya v pogrebalnoj praktike iranoyazychnykh kochevnikov Severnogo Kavkaza. Kant, 3, 16, s. 16-21.
Gurenko, L. V. 1997. Otchet o provedenii arkheologicheskikh issledovanij v Kumylzhenskom rajone Volgogradskoj oblasti (u stanitsy Glazunovskoj) v 1996 g.
Zajczeva, O. V. 2005. Pogrebeniya s narushennoj anatomicheskoj tselostnostiju kostyaka: metodika issledovaniya i vozmozhnosti interpretatsii: Dissertaciia k. i. n. Tomsk.
Kirichenko, D. A. 2007. O trepanatsii cherepa v drevnosti. Azərbaycan arxeologiyasэ vəetnoqrafiyasэ, 1, s. 63-67.
Kiselev, S. V. 1951. Drevnyaya istoriya Yuzhnoj Sibiri. Moskva: Nauka.
Krivosheev, M. V. 2017. Vostochnye traditsii i innovatsii v sarmatskikh pamyatnikakh vtoroj poloviny II—IV v. n. e. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Istoriya. Regionovedenie. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 22, 4, s. 17-27.
Kyzlasov, L. R. 1960. Tashtykskaya epokha v istorii Khakassko-Minusinskoj kotloviny (I v. do n. e. — V v. n. e.). Moskva: MGU.
Lipskij, A. N. 1966. K voprosu ob ispolzovanii etnografii dlya interpretatsii arkheologicheskikh materialov. Sovetskaya etnografiya, 1, s. 105-118.
Lisiczyn, Yu. P. 2004. Istoriya medicziny uchebnik. Moskva: Geotar.
Malashev, V. Yu. 2009. Pozdnesarmatskaya kultura: verkhnyaya khronologicheskaya granicza. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 1, s. 47-51.
Mamontov, V. I., Obramenko, I. E., Pererva, E. V. 2018. Trepanatsiya cherepa iz zakhoroneniya srednesarmatskogo vremeni s territorii Volgogradskoj oblasti. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 23: Antropologiya, 1, s. 86-100.
Mednikova, M. B. 1997. K voprosu o rasprostranenii posmertnoj trepanatsii cherepov v Tsentralnoj Azii. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 4, s. 130-188.
Mednikova, M. B. 2001. Trepanatsii u drevnikh narodov Evrazii. Moskva: Nauchnyj mir.
Mednikova, M. B. 2004. Trepanatsii v drevnem mire i kult golovy. Moskva: Aleteja.
Naran, B., Tumen, D. 1997. Travmaticheskie povrezhdeniya na cherepakh Chandmanskogo mogilnika. Rossijskaya arkheologiya, 4, s. 122-130.
Nechitajlo, A. L. 2004. Eneoliticheskie pogrebeniya s perforirovannymi cherepami v stepyakh Evrazii. In: Problemy arkheologii Nizhnego Povolzhija. I Mezhdunarodnaya Nizhnevolzhskaya arkheologicheskaya konferentsiya. Tezisy dokladov. Volgograd, s. 61-63.
Pererva, E. V. 2012. Sluchaj trepanatsii u sarmatov (po antropologicheskim materialam iz mogilnika Peregruznoe I). Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya XXIII, 2, s. 123-133.
Pigolkin, Yu. I., Barinov, E. Kh., Bogomolov, D. V., Bogomolova, I. N. 2002. Sudebnaya meditsina. Moskva: Geotar-med.
Rokhlin, D. G. 1960. Bolezni drevnikh lyudej (kosti lyudej razlichnykh epokh normalnye i patologicheskie izmeneniya). Moskva; Leningrad: Nauka.
Rudenko, S. I. 1949. Kultura Altaya vremeni sooruzheniya pazyrykskikh kurganov. Kratkie soobshchenija IIMK, XXVI, s. 97-109.
Rudenko, S. I. 1953. Kultura naseleniya Gornogo Altaya v skifskoe vremya. Moskva; Leningrad: AN SSSR.
Rudenko, S. I. 1960. Kultura naseleniya Tsentralnogo Altaya v skifskoe vremya. Moskva; Leningrad: AN SSSR.
Sidorov, V. V. 1997. Akt sudebno-mediczinskogo issledovaniya N 8. In: Gurenko, L. V. Otchet o provedenii arkheologicheskikh issledovanij v Kumylzhenskom rajone Volgogradskoj oblasti (u staniczy Glazunovskoj) v 1996 g. Arkhiv N 8.
Skripkin, A. S. 1992. Aziatskaya Sarmatiya. Problemy khronologii, periodizatsii i etnopoliticheskoj istorii. Nauchny doklad, predstavlenny v kachestve dissertatsii na soiskanie uchenoj stepeni doktora istoricheskikh nauk. Moskva.
Skripkin, A. S. (ed.). 2009. Arkheologicheskaya encziklopediya Volgogradskoj oblasti. 2009. Volgograd: VolGU.
Smirnov, Yu. A. 1997. Labirint: mifologiya prednamerennogo pogrebeniya. Moskva: Vostochnaya literatura.
Smolyaninov, V. M. 1959. Sudebnaya meditsina: uchebnik dlya studentov med. in-tov. Moskva: Medgiz.
Tokarev, S. A. 1990. Rannie formy religii. Moskva: Politizdat.
Fialkov, L. 2010. Istoriya meditsiny. Khajfa: JKDesign.
Flyorov, V. S. 2000. Alany Tsentralnogo Predkavkaziya V—VIII vekov: obryad obezvrezhivaniya pogrebionnykh. Trudy Klin-Yarskoj ekspeditsii, I. Moskva: Polimedia.
Khokhlov, A. A. 2012. Ritualnye travmy na cherepakh u nositelej khvalynskoj eneoliticheskoj kultury Povolzhiya. Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 2, s. 118-125.
Khudaverdyan, A. Yu. 2015. Trepanirovannye cherepa iz pogrebenij epokhi pozdnej bronzy i rannego zheleznogo veka s territorii Armenii. Vestnik arkheologii, antropologii i etnografii, 2 (29), s. 115-127.
Chikisheva, T. A., Zubova, A. V., Krivoshapkin, A. L., Kurbatov, V. P., Volkov, P. V., Titov, A. T. 2014. Kompleksnoe issledovanie trepanatsij u rannikh kochevnikov Gornogo Altaya. Arkheologiya, etnografiya i antropologiya Evrazii, 1, 57, s. 130-141.
Yaczenko, S. A. Kostyum drevnej Evrazii (iranoyazychnye narody). Moskva: Vostochnaya literatura.
Yaczenko, S. A. 2007. O zhenshhinakh-«zhriczax» u rannikh kochevnikov (na primere znatnykh sarmatok I v. do n. e. — II vv. n. e.). Mirovozzrenie narodov Yuzhnoj Sibiri i Tsentralnoj Azii v istoricheskoj retrospective, 1, s. 1-8.
Yaczenko, S. A. 2016. Kharakter drevnikh ograblenij kurganov dvukh grupp sarmatskoj elity’ I — II vv. n. e. Trudy IIMK RAN, 46: Drevnie nekropoli i poseleniya: postpogrebalnye ritualy, simvolicheskie zakhoroneniya i ogrableniya, s. 147-156.

Abstract views: 16
PDF Downloads: 14
Published
2020-05-12
How to Cite
Pererva, E. V. (2020). TREPANATION IN THE SARMATIANS OF THE LOWER VOLGA REGION (Revisiting its Causes and Origins) . Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 36(3), 465-475. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.03.34