HORSE FRONTLET PLATES FROM HORSE FRONTLETS FROM NOVOLABINSKY GRAVE 71 AND KURGANS NEAR THE VILLAGE OF GLINOE AS AN INDICATOR OF CONTACTS BETWEEN THE LOWER DNIESTR REGION AND THE KUBAN REGION


  • B. A. Raev Federal Research Centre The Southern Scientific Centre, the Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: horse harness, frontlets, Tiraspol kurgans, Kuban region, nomad migrations.

Abstract

This publication presents an assemblage from a horse burial excavated in 2011 in the cemetery of the 4th Novolabinsky settlement in the Kuban region. Six horses placed in a pit, were accompanied by several sets of riding harness. It included one bit with straight check-pieces, C-shaped check-pieces, bridle decorations, breastgirth ornaments and three frontlets, each with a hook, two of them have zoomorphic ends. The closest parallels to the horse frontlets from the Bolshoi Kurgan of Vasyurinskaya Gora allow us to attribute the Novolabinsk grave to the 2nd century BC.

A series of eight similar frontlets without zoomorphic dйcor was found in kurgans near the village of Glinoe in Transnistria. The excavators dated the assemblages to the period from the first half of the 3rd century ВС to the first half of the 2nd century BC. Meanwhile, during this period there was a significant gap in 20—30 years when frontlets were not found in the graves. Considering the typological closeness of the Transnistrian and Kuban frontlets, the chronological gap looked questionable. Re-evaluation of the data of the Tiraspol kurgans, and an analysis of the grounds for their dating revealed that the authors of their initial publication assigned the materials to 15—90 years older. Assemblages with frontlets from kurgans near the village of Glinoe, according to the revised dating, make up a compact group, and a time period between the earliest and latest burials was no more than 50—60 years, from the first decade to the third quarter of the 2nd century BC.

The revision and specification of the dates of the Tiraspol kurgans reduces to a minimum the time gap between the graves with frontlets in the Transnistria and the graves with frontlets in the Kuban region. Such a chronology confirms the possibility of a hypothesis formulated in 2016 by A. V. Symonenko, according to which a part of the Tiraspol elite returned to the native lands of the North-Western Ciscaucasia. It was in the Kuban region, when zoomorphic decorative elements, as a result of an influence of the antique centers of the Black Sea region, appeared on frontlets with hook. The high quality of the frontlets from Kuban region, expressed not only in the dйcor but in the complicated technique of combining several metals (iron, silver, bronze, and gold) in the same object, was due to their manufacturing in the Bosporus workshops.

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Published
2020-05-19
How to Cite
Raev , B. A. (2020). HORSE FRONTLET PLATES FROM HORSE FRONTLETS FROM NOVOLABINSKY GRAVE 71 AND KURGANS NEAR THE VILLAGE OF GLINOE AS AN INDICATOR OF CONTACTS BETWEEN THE LOWER DNIESTR REGION AND THE KUBAN REGION. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 36(3), 510-523. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2020.03.38