THE NUTRITION OF THE SUBCARPATHIAN POPULATION IN THE 3rd—4th centuries
The issue of the sources and nature of nutrition of ancient population is undoubtedly important to reproduce the general picture of its life. Archaeologists learn about this, analyzing the remains of foodstuffs or equipment, which have been found during the excavation of sites and may indicate the manufacture or usage of such products.
The Subcarpathian territory in the 3rd—4th centuries was inhabited by the tribes of the Carpathian Barrows Culture. The agricultural nature of the economy of this population was determined after the discovery and research of the settlements. Long time this archaeological culture was known only by its burial sites.
Naturally, the basis of nutrition of the ancient farmer population was the cereals. In particular, the complex of granaries with charred grain, discovered at the settlement near Pylypy village, indicates the wide range of cultivated cereals, among which the preference was given to the barley, millet, oats. Apparently, the Subcarpathian people in the 3rd—4th centuries used for nutrition mainly the products of retreatment of these cereals. It is interested that, according to ethnographic data, before the appearance of corn and potatoes just the barley, millet and oats were the basis of the daily food of the Carpathian Ukrainians. Even in nineteenth century traditional unleavened bread has been baked of oatmeal. The population was engaged in animal husbandry, kept the cows, horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry. The bones of these animals and birds were occurred in the materials of settlements and burials. The usage of dairy products is evidenced by the findings of jugs, mugs and clay «colanders» for making cottage cheese. The dishes cooked of lamb, pork, poultry as well the eggs were placed in the burial as funeral food. Population Subcarpathian Barrows Culture not use meat of horse as food. The presence of burnt horse bones in the barrows was of sacred significance. Horses in burials were escort animals to the afterlife.
Archaeological finds of hunting weapons and fishing tackle give reasons to believe that additional meals were the game and fish. Naturally, the ancient population also fed by mushrooms, berries, honey of wild bees, herbs.
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