IRON AGRICULTURAL TOOLS FROM REVNE


Keywords: Revne, Raiky culture, agriculture, tools, tillage, harvesting

Abstract

Iron agricultural tools from the Revne agglomeration of Slavs of the 8th—10th centuries is analyzed in the paper. The complex is one of the outstanding sites of the Eastern Croats Slavic tribal group in the Ukrainian Carpathian region (fig. 1). During ca. 50 years of stationary and supervisory explorations almost complete set of agricultural tools for primary and secondary tillage and for harvesting has been accumulated.

The paper provides detailed description of the tools. Comparative analysis of the materials in geographical environment was carried out both in the area of Raiky culture and synchronous and chronologically close cultures and sites. Iron parts of plow-type tools certify a high level of technical equipment for tillage. Asymmetrical heads are inherent in bow ard. This plow-type tool had the head with iron wide-bladed tip posed horizontally to the ground and also knife coulter and mouldboard. Arable tools of this type cutted and turned the soil. Their use indicates the highest level of development of technical capabilities of tillage in the area of Raiky culture and synchronous archaeological cultures (fig. 2—4, 9). Hoes of two types are presented: the socketed items with a vertical open socket and those with a horizontal solid socket. Both types are well-known (the first type is much more common) but functionally there is no difference between them. Their analogies are common in the area of Raiky culture and synchronous surrounding (fig. 5, 6, 9).

The harvesting process can be considered traditional for the people of Raiky culture. However there are insignificant differences comparing to the aggregate data. Thus, scythes with a curved handle (mainly used for haymaking and possibly for harvesting cereals with a tight ear) have not yet been occurred in Revne. However, such findings are generally much less common than sickles (fig. 7—9).

The complex of iron agricultural tools shows the highest level of development of agriculture in the people of Raiky culture. Comparative analysis with other cultural and ethnic groups of the late 1st millennium AD in Central and Eastern Europe also shows that the level of agriculture is close to the achievements of the Saltiv culture.

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2021-06-01
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Gorbanenko, S. A., & Mykhailyna, L. P. (2021). IRON AGRICULTURAL TOOLS FROM REVNE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 38(1), 16-32. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/341