CHERNYAKHIV «BULLAS» (METAL AND LEATHER PENDANTS-FOLDING IN THE CHERNYAKHIV—SINTANA-DE-MURES CULTURE’S AREA)


Keywords: Chernyakhiv—Sоntana-de-Mureş Culture, pendants, protective amulets, ideology, beliefs, magic.

Abstract

Decorations of the Chernyakhiv—Sintana-de-Mures Culture (ChSM) includes metal and leather pendants which by some morphological features can be considered as derivatives of the roman bulla. Bulla is a small capsule pendant folded from two identical halves. It’s assumed that bulla originated with the Etruscans in the VIIth century BC. The bulla was later borrowed by romans, who originally intended it for boys — the children of aristocrats from the ninth day of birth to 14—16 years, until receiving the status of a Roman citizen. Later the golden bulla lost the meaning of a social marker and became mainly a property feature. Content of bulla were parts of plants, animal bones, pieces of textile, sand etc.

Derivatives of the Roman bulla in the ChSM Culture have been found in next burial complexes (Barcea 139, Bila 3, Cherneliv-Rus’kyi 96, Dumaniv 8, Sosnova 245), leather bullas were found once (Legedzine 16). Besides, two pendants-capsules were found on late Scythians Lower Dnieper cemetery Mykolaivka (burial 64, grave 1), which contained ChSM Culture’s graves too.

Following observation deserves the attention. The capacity of one pendant from Pannonia is similar by decor to clay knots, which were spread in many cultures, including ChSM Culture. They are interpreted as magic, used for fortune-telling and similar to nasturtium seeds.

Contents of Chernyakhiv Culture’s «bullas» are unknown, but combination with another pendants-amulets certainly confirms the magical character of such pendants.

Finally, metal bullae, cylindrical and flat cylindrical pendants-capsules continued their existence in the early Middle Ages and as metal folding icons and leather incenses survived in orthodox church to this day.

References

Gavritukhin, I. O. Dumanov. Lichnyi arkhiv I. O. Gavritukhina.
Hei, O. A. 1987. Pohrebalnyi obriad pozdnykh skyfov na Nyzhnem Dnepre. Sovetskaia arkheolohyia, 3, s. 53-67.
Hereta, Y. P. 1989. Novye mohylnyky Cherniakhovskoi kultury v Zapadnoi Podolyy y velbarskaia kultura. Kultura Wielbarska w młodszym okresie rzymskim, II, c. 283-313.
Gereta, I., 2013. Chernelevo-Ruskyi mohylnyk. Oium, 3. Kyiv: IA NAN Ukrainy.
Hereta, I. 2007. Mohylnyk cherniakhivskoi kultury v s. Bila na Ternopilshchyni. Tylishchak, V., Kovalchuk, T. (ed.). Biblioteka zhurnalu «Dzherelo». Seriia: Arkheolohiia, 1. Ternopil: Merkiuri-Ternopil.
Gopkalo, O. V. 2008. Busy i podveski cherniakhovskoi kultury. Kiev: IA NAN Ukrainy.
Zubar, V. M. 1982. Nekropol Khersonesa Tavricheskogo I—IV vv. n. e. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Zubar, V. M. 1987. Etnicheskii sostav naseleniia Khersonesa Tavricheskogo pervykh vekov nashei ery (po materialam nekropolia). In: Aibabin, A. I., Vysotskaia, T. N. (eds.). Materialy k etnicheskoi istorii Kryma VII v. do n. e. — VII v. n. e. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 78-101.
Zubar, V. M. 2005. Bogi i geroi antichnogo Khersonesa. Kiev: Stilos.
Konduktorova, T. S. 1979. Fizicheskii tip liudei Nizhnego Pridneprovia na rubezhe nashei ery. Moskva: Nauka.
Kropotkin, V. V. 1978. Otchet ob arkheologicheskikh raskopkakh mogilnika u s. Dumanov Kamenetc-Podolskogo r-na Khmelnitckoi oblasti v 1978 g. NA IA NAN Ukrainy, f. 64, 1978/121.
Magomedov, B. V., Didenko, S. V. 2009. Mogilnik cherniakhovskoi kultury u s. Legedzino. Raboty 2008—2009 gg. In: Krutc, V. A., Korvin-Piotrovskii, A. G., Menotti, F., Ryzhov, S. N., Tolochko, D. V., Chabaniuk, V. V. Tripolskoe poselenie-gigant Talianki. Issledovaniia 2009 g. Kiev, s. 56-92.
Makhno, E. V., Sikorskii, M. I., Buzian, G. I. 1979. Otchet o rabote Pereiaslav-Khmelnitckoi ekspeditcii v 1979 g. NA IA NAN Ukrainy, f. 64, 1979/119.
Stoianova, A. A. 2006. Busy i podveski naseleniia Kryma III v. do n. e. — IV v. n. e. Dissertatciia k. i. n. IA NAN Ukrainy.
Strzheletckii, S. F., Vysotskaia, T. N., Ryzhova, L. A., Zhestkova, G. I. 2003—2004. Naselenie okrugi Khersonesa v pervoi polovine I tysiacheletiia novoi ery (po materialam nekropolia «Sovkhoz N 10»). Stratum plus, 4, s. 27-277.
Symonovich, E. A. 1969. Otchet o rabotakh Tiligulo-Dneprovskogo otriada Instituta arkheologii AN SSSR i Instituta antropologii MGU v 1969 g. v Nikolaevke. NA IA NAN Ukrainy, f. 64, 1969/67.
Antichitatea... 2009. Antichitatea tвrzie in bazinul Prutului. Catalog. Ioniţa, I., Mamalaucă, M., Vornic, V. (eds.). Bărlad: Sfera.
Ashkenazi, D., Taxel, I., Tal, O. 2015. Archeometallurgical characterization of Late Roman- and Byzantine-period Samaritan magical objects and jewelry made of copper alloys. Materials Characterization, 102, p. 195-208.
Bolog, A. C., Bounegru, G. 2012. About the bulla type pendants discovered at Apulum. Terra Sebus. Acta Musei Sabesiensis, 4, p. 225-236.
Goette, H. R. 1986. Die Bulla. Bonner Jahrbьcher, 86, p. 133-164.
Hamat, A. 2010. Despre pandantivul rotund cu casetă din Dacia Romană. Bulla. Drobeta, XX, p. 214-230.
Ioniţa, I. 2017. Un mormвnt cu inventor bogat din necropola de la Miorcani (sec. IV d. hr.). Acta musei Tutovensis, XIII, p. 173-184.
Kiilerich, B. 1998. The obelisk base in Constantinople: court art and imperial ideology. Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia: series altera in 8, Χ. Rome: G. Bretschneider.
Kokowski, A. 2000. Zu Geheimnisvollen Tonknцpfen von typ «Bernaљivka». Sbornнk nбrodnнho muzea v Praze, LIV, 1—4, S. 65-70.
Kokowski, A. 2019. Illerup Еdal 15: Kleinfunde zivilen Charakters. Jutland Archaeological Society Publications, XXV, 15. Hшjbjerg: Moesgaard Museum.
Lasota-Kuś, A., Stempniak-Kusy, S. 2019. Cemetery in Ostrуw, site 21 as the example of multidirectional contacts of the Przeworsk culture — people living in the central part of the San River basin in the Early and Younger Roman Period. Acta archaeologica Carpathica, LIV, s. 77-90.
Marijanski-Manojlović, M. 1987. Rimska nekropola kod Beљke u Sremu. Novi Sad.
Niezabitowska-Wiśniewska, B. 2015. Ulуw (pow. tomaszowski, woj. lubelskie), stan. 7, obiekt 124, czyli raz jeszcze w kwestii glinianych guzуw typu Bernaљivka. Światowit, Supplement Series, B: Barbaricum, 11, s. 489-524.
Ruseva-Slokoska, L. 1991. Roman Jewellery. Sofia.
Schuster, J. 2013. Bystred — Lьbsow — Muљov: Der Gebrauch von Edelmetall in germanischen Fьrstengrдbern der дlteren Rцmischen Kaiserzeit. In: Hardt, M. Heinrich-Tamбska, O. (eds.). Macht des Goldes, Gold der Macht. Weinstadt: Bernhard Albert Greiner, S. 151-170.
Szilagyi, M. 2005. Late Roman Bullae and Amulet Capsules in Pannonia. Annual of Medieval Studies at Central European University, 11, p. 9-27.
Vida, T. 2009. Herkunft und Funktion von Privatreliquiaren und Amulettkapseln im frьhgeschichtlichen Europa. In: von Freeden, U., Friesinger, H., Wamers, E. (eds.). Glaube, Kult und Herrschaft Phдnomene des Religiцsen. Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt, S. 261-280.

Abstract views: 1
PDF Downloads: 0
Published
2021-06-01
How to Cite
Gopkalo, O. V. (2021). CHERNYAKHIV «BULLAS» (METAL AND LEATHER PENDANTS-FOLDING IN THE CHERNYAKHIV—SINTANA-DE-MURES CULTURE’S AREA). Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 38(1), 304-310. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/362