THE JEWELRY MOLD FROM KHODOSIVKA SETTLEMENT OF THE VOLYNTSEVO CULTURE


  • O. V. Komar Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: Eastern Slavs, Middle Dnieper region, Early Middle Ages, Volyntsevo culture, mold, home craft.

Abstract

Casting molds for making small ornaments of lead or tin alloys were found in different parts of the East Europe in the areas of various archaeological cultures. This simple technology and simple shapes of products were in use by many peoples since 3rd till 10th century and perhaps even earlier. Lead castings and stone molds for their manufacture attracted the attention of researchers of Early Slavic archaeology since discovery of the Velyki Budky hoard (1981) and Bernashivka workshop (1990).

The obvious problem was the chronological and geographic lacuna between the Slavic Bernashivka type ornaments (6th—7th centuries) and ornaments of the Kamno-Rхuge type (8th—10th centuries) from the Eastern Baltic region. Several versions explaining the similarity of finds from the northern and southern areas have been proposed: common substrate, population migrations, imitation of some fashion etc. In recent years two molds for some ornaments of the Kamno-Rхuge type have been discovered at the Romny culture hillforts (Sverdlovske 1, Vorkhol II), which demonstrated the lasting of the tradition in the south until the 10th century.

A problem of the upper limit for existence of the Bernashivka type ornaments can be clarified using the mold find from Khodosivka settlement. The mold was discovered by expedition of E. O. Petrovska in 1976 during a survey along the left edge of the Gley ravine (Kozakiv ravine) near the Khodosivka hillfort. It was found in remaining part of a pit dwelling in context with fragments of hand-made and wheel-made pots of the Volyntsevo culture. The object dates back to the second half of the 8th century — early 9th cen-
tury.

Negatives of ornaments are carved on both sides of the mold. A diamond-shaped patch carved on the main side. On the reverse side the negatives of round plaques are carved and probably loops for attaching the same plaques. There is also circular decoration presents, probably, of a circular pendant. The closest analogies to such decorations were found in the Bernashivka workshop, and also at the molds from the Lower Danube region. Products from the Khodosivka mold look quite archaic and simple in comparing to gold and silver jewelry from hoards of the Volyntsevo culture. Such production was undoubtedly the part of nonprofessional home craft.

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2021-06-01
How to Cite
Komar, O. V. (2021). THE JEWELRY MOLD FROM KHODOSIVKA SETTLEMENT OF THE VOLYNTSEVO CULTURE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 38(1), 383-397. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/367