AGRICULTURE IN THE INTERFLUVE OF DNIESTER AND IKVA AT OLD RUSSIAN PERIOD ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDINGS


  • M. O. Yahodynska Ternopil Regional Center for the Protection and Research of Cultural Heritage Sites
  • S. A. Gorbanenko Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4786-0369
Keywords: agriculture, palaeoethnobotany, white straw crops, kitchen gardening, horticulture

Abstract

The article sums up the results of archaeological investigations of the settlements of South Volyn (the territory around annalistic Danyliv town) and Western Podillia (the territory of sites complex of Zbruch cultural center, annalistic Terebovlia). Authors conducted generalization of findings of agriculture implements, white straw crops remains and supplemented source base. During archaeological investigations of the settlements and fortified settlements of Western Podillia and South Volyn at the end of 20th — beginning of 21th centuries scientists discovered 64 metal objects connected with agriculture found at 14 sites and palaeoethnobotanical materials at 11 sites (table 1; fig. 1). Functionally metal objects divide into tools connected with land cultivating: tips on plowing tools (4), coulter (2) (fig. 2), hoes (3) and shovels ironing (4) (fig. 3); and the tools for harvesting: sickles (33; fig. 6) and scythes (18; fig. 7). Only one palaeoethnobotanical complex from 11 sites is of interest to statistics (table 2; fig. 5).

Agriculture analysis is conducted according to the process: from land cultivating to preservation and harvest processing. Plowing tools are represented by developed tips types maximally similar to tusks. Findings of coulters prove existence of the most efficient tools of plough type for plowing. Set of ironings for shovels and hoes represents kitchen gardening and horticulture.

One full paleoethnobotanical spectrum connected with the region is derived which helps to characterize grain farming and spectrum indicators resemble early Slavic. At the same time indicators of efficient capricious white straw crops are rather substantial and that proves high level of tillage.

Presence of sickles and scythes is an undoubted proof of local agriculture. For harvest preserving some special grain pits were used.

The survey of materials concerned with agriculture proves its high level. Further thorough and combined investigations will give an opportunity to refine these conclusions and place and role of agriculture in life of ancient communities in the interfluve of Dniester and Ikva at Old Russian period.

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Published
2021-06-01
How to Cite
Yahodynska, M. O., & Gorbanenko, S. A. (2021). AGRICULTURE IN THE INTERFLUVE OF DNIESTER AND IKVA AT OLD RUSSIAN PERIOD ACCORDING TO ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDINGS. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 38(1), 408-424. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/369