EAST TRYPILLIA AND WEST TRYPILLIA CULTURES: MYTH OR REALITY?


Keywords: culturogenesis, cultural complex of Cucuteni-Trypillia (Trypillia-Cucuteni), Trypillia Culture, structure of Culture, East, West Trypillia Culture.

Abstract

Problems of culturogenesis and structure of the cultural complex of Trypillia-Сucuteni become relevant in the last decades of the XXth century. The emergence of new sources and methods encourages researchers to understand the phenomenon of Trypillia-Сucuteni on a new level. There is a noticeable tendency to single out individual archaeological cultures instead of structural subdivisions of the cultural community at the turn of the XX—XXIth centuries. The binary scheme of the division of the Trypillia culture into the «East Trypillia» and «West Trypillia» cultures became popular in the national Trypillia studies. However, such an «innovation» is not sufficiently substantiated both at the level of methodological principles and analysis of specific materials. Elucidation of the real structure of the cultural complex of Trypillia-Сucuteni shows its versatility and proves the artificiality of its division into two archaeological cultures, which is proposed by O. V. Tsvek and S. M. Ryzhov.

The division of the Trypillia-Сucuteni cultural complex into separate archeological cultures (two or more) is impossible until its final stage CII, because almost all its structural units are selected on the basis of ceramic traditions, and the other parameters (character of house-building, tools producing, sacred tradition) are more or less the same. All structural units combine a genetic link with the Precucuteni-Trypillya A times, which demonstrates all the features of the Trypillia-Сucuteni cultural complex as a whole, with the exception of ceramic traditions. These traditions are the most dynamic, act as an indicator of the cultural identity of certain groups of the population and reflect the structure of the cultural complex.

The structure of the cultural complex Trypillia-Сucuteni is a spatio-temporal continuum, its complexity is due to dynamic and multifaceted processes of internal transformations of individual units of the structure, the interaction of traditions and innovations, constant contacts between them, the movement of specific groups, their interaction with surrounding cultural complexes. The binary concept of the «East Trypillia» and the «West Trypillia» cultures, which became too popular today, is an artificial construction and does not reflect the real structure of Trypillia Culture.

References

Zalizniak, L. L. (ed.). 2005. Arkheolohiia Ukrainy. Kurs lektsii. Kyiv: Lybid.
Burdo, N. B. 2011. Symvolika antropomorfnykh posudyn Oleksandrivskoi hrupy Trypillia A. Materialy po arkheologiii Severnogo Prichernomoria, 12, s. 8-30.
Burdo, N. B. 2012. Etnokulturna model Trypillia-Kukuten. In: Otroshchenko, V. V. (ed.). Zemledeltsy i skotovody Drevnei Evropy (problemy, nove otkrytiia, gipotezy. Dopolnennoe izdanie). Kiev; Sankt-Peterburg, s. 14-19.
Burdo, N. B. 2016. Keramika «tipa Kukuten S» v keramicheskikh ansambliakh kulturnogo kompleksa Kukuten-Tripole. Tyragetia, X (XXV), 1, s. 7-38.
Burdo, N. B. 2018. Struktura i sotsialnye modeli kultury Kukuten A — Tripole BI. Stratum plus, 2, s. 17-34.
Goshko, T. 2019. Izuchenie tekhnologii izgotovleniia raspisnoi keramiki s poseleniia Tripole. Revista arheologică, XV, 1, s. 132-139.
Husiev, S. O. 1995. Trypilska kultura Serednoho Pobuzhzhia rubezhu IV—III tys. do n. e. Vinnytsia: An-
teks.
Videiko, M., Burdo, N., Slesarev, E., Videiko, M. 2019. Novye issledovaniia eponimnogo pamiatnika tripolskoi kultury. Revista arheologică, XV, 1, s. 65-76.
Danylenko, V. M. 1957. Doslidzhennia neolitychnykh pam’iatok na Pivdennomu Buzi. Arkheolohiia, 10, s. 36-49.
Danilenko, V. N. 1969. Neolit Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Danilenko, V. N. 1974. Eneolit Ukrainy. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Zakharuk, Yu. M. 1964. Problemy arkheolohichnoi kultury. Arkheolohiia, XVII, s. 12-42.
Zaets, I. I. 1974. Tripolskoe poselenie Klishchev na Iuzhnom Buge. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 4, s. 180-200.
Kandyba, O. 2007. Halytska malovana neolitychna keramika. In: Ryzhov, S., Rassamakin, Yu. (ed.). Arkheolohiia. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo imeni Oleny Telihy, s. 20-109.
Masson, V. M. 1987. Vyvchennia kulturnoho protsesu za arkheolohichnymy materialamy. Arkheolohiia, 57, s. 9-18.
Movsha, T. H. 1972. Periodyzatsiia i khronolohiia serednoho ta piznoho Trypillia. Arkheolohiia, 5, s. 3-24.
Movsha, T. G. 1975. Dve paralelnye linii v razvitii tripolskoi etnokulturnoi oblasti (etapy BI—CI). In: Noveishie otkrytiia sovetskikh arkheologov: tezisy dokladov konferentsii. 1. Kiev: IA AN USSR, s. 69-71.
Ovchynnykov, E. V. 2012. Doslidzhennia na trypilskomu poselenni Vladyslavchyk. In: Otroshchenko, V. V. (ed.). Zemledeltsy i skotovody drevnei Evropy. Kiev; Sankt-Peterburg, s. 115-123.
Ovchynnykov, E. V. 2014. Trypilska kultura Kanivskoho Podniprov’ia. Kyiv: Oleh Filiuk.
Passek, T. S. 1949. Periodizatsiia tripolskikh poselenii (III—II tysiacheletiia do n. e.). Materialy i issledovaniia po arkheologii SSR, 10. Moskva; Leningrad: AN SSSR.
Ryzhov, S. M. 2002. Trypilskyi shar poselennia Ripnytsia I. In: Videiko M. Yu. (ed.). Rzhyshchivskyi arkheodrom: Arkheolohichni doslidzhennia ta eksperementalni studii 2000—2001 rokiv. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka, s. 19-40.
Ryzhov, S. M. 2007. Suchasnyi stan vyvchennia kulturno-istorychnoi spilnosti Kukuten-Trypillia na terytorii Ukrainy. In: Ryzhov, S., Rassamakin, Yu. (ed.). Arkheolohiia. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo imeni Oleny Telihy, s. 437-477.
Ryzhov, S. N. 2015. Vladimirskaia lokalno-khronologicheskaia gruppa zapadno-tripolskoi kultury v Bugo-Dneprovskom mezhdureche. In: Diachenko, O. (ed.). Kulturnii kompleks Kukuten-Tripіllia ta iogo susіdi. Zbіrka naukovikh prats pam’iatі Volodimira Krutsa. Lvіv: Astroliabіia, s. 153-166.
Ryzhov, S. M, Mahomedov, B. V., Shumova, V. O, Trachuk, O. V. 2004. Arkheolohichni rozkopky dvosharovoho poselennia Ripnytsia 1 bilia m. Rzhyshcheva. In: Kotsur, V. P. (ed.). Rzhyshchivskyi arkheodrom 2. Doslidzhennia ta eksperymentalni studii 2002—2004 rokiv. Kyiv: Puhachov, s. 54-92.
Sorokin, V. Ia. 1990. K probleme khronologii pamiatnikov srednego Tripolia Moldovy. In: Rannezemledelcheskie poseleniia-giganty tripolskoi kultury na Ukraine. Tezisy dokladov I polevogo seminara. Talianki 1990. Talianki; Veselyi Kut; Maidanetskoe, s. 94-101.
Tsvek, E. V. 1975. Tripolskie plemena mezhdurechia Iuzhnogo Buga i Dnepra i ikh sviazi s naseleniem iugo-zapada Prichernomoria i Zakarpatia. In: 150 let Odesskomu arkheologicheskomu muzeiu AN USSR: Tezisy dokladov iubileinoi konferentsii. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 51-52.
Tsvek, E. V. 1980. Tripolskie poseleniia Bugo-Dneprovskogo mezhdurechia: K voprosu o vostochnom areale kultury Kukuteni-Tripole. In: Artemenko, I. I. (ed.). Pervobytnaia arkheologiia — poiski i nakhodki. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 163-185.
Tsvek, E. V. 1989. Bugo-dneprovskii variant vostochnotripolskoi kultury: K probleme vydeleniia kultur i lokalnykh variantov Tripolia. In: Berezanskaia, S. S. (ed.). Pervobytnaia arkheologiia: Materialy i issledovaniia. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 106-117.
Tsvek, E. V. 2003. Nekotorye aspekty vzaimodeistviia eneoliticheskikh obshchestv Tripolia i Stepi. In: Korvin-Piotrovskyi, O. H. (ed.). Trypilski poselennia-hihanty. Materialy mizhnarodnoi konferentsii. Kyiv: Korvin-Pres, s. 175-
182.
Tsvek, O. V. 2004. Skhidnotrypilska kultura. In: Videiko, M. Yu. (ed.). Entsyklopediia trypilskoi tsyvilizatsii. II. Kyiv: Ukrpolihrafmediia, s. 507-508.
Tsvek, O. V. 2006. Poselennia skhidnotrypilskoi kultury (korotkyi narys). Kyiv: IA NAN Ukrainy.
Tsvek, E. V. 2012. Vostochnotripolskaia kultura i nekotorye aspekty struktury Kukuteno-Tripolskoi megaobshchnosti. In: Otroshchenko, V. V. (ed.). Zemledeltsy i skotovody drevnei Evropy. Kiev; Sankt-Peterburg, s. 225-245.
Burdo, N. 2014. Anthropomorphic plastic art of Trypillia culture: dialectic of similarities and differences. In: Ursu, C.-E., Ţerna, S. (eds.). Anthropomorphism and symbolic behaviour in the Neolithic and Copper Age communities of South-Eastern Europe. Suceava: Kari A. Ronstorfer, p. 303-364.
Childe, V. G. 1929. The Danube, in Prehistory. Oxford [England]: Clarendon; New York: Oxford University.
Lazarovici, C.-M., Lazarovici, G., Ţurcanu, S. 2009. Cucuneni: A Great Civilization of the Prehistoric World. Iaşi: Palatul Culturii.

Abstract views: 3
PDF Downloads: 4
Published
2021-09-30
How to Cite
Burdo, N. B. (2021). EAST TRYPILLIA AND WEST TRYPILLIA CULTURES: MYTH OR REALITY?. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 39(2), 350-359. Retrieved from https://adiu.com.ua/index.php/journal/article/view/395