THE SHIP WRECK OF THE LATE 4th / EARLY 3rd CENTURY BC NEAR KINBURN SPIT


Keywords: Underwater archaeology, Black Sea, Amphora, Ship, Ukraine, Wreck.

Abstract

During the campaign of 2018 the international underwater archaeological expedition has explored the waters of Tendra Spit and Kinburn Spit on the shelf of the Black Sea, in Mykolaiv and Kherson regions of Ukraine. Underwater archaeological exploration focused on the waters near the northern tip of Tendra Spit, from both the Gulf of Tendra and the sea, and north-western tip of Kinburn Spit. In addition to the visual reconnaissance, divers were using sonar, profiler and side-scan sonar. As a result, the bathymetric map has been compiled. In the initial part of research the work was limited to mapping and taking photographs of the discoveries. During these works was discovered and cleansed the ancient Shipwreck of the late 4th — early 3rd century BC. It was possible to identify the well-preserved fragment of the hull of ancient Wreck of a length of 9.45 m in situ with ballast stones, ceramic material from the cargo, lead plating and him constructions elements. After clearing of the sand from the preserved part of the ship hull with the help of a hydro injector the video and photo documentation was carried out. As a result of these works, large-scale photo mosaic of the object and its 3D-model were made. The condition of the wooden hull is excellent, the technological holes, connections, bronze and iron nails are preserved.

Outside of Ukraine several shipwrecks of the same period are attested. The best studied are the following: shipwreck of the 3rd century BC at Grand Congloue, France; the Mazotos shipwreck of the 4th century BC in Cyprus; the Porticello shipwreck of the end of the 5th or beginning of the 4th century BC in Italy; the Alonnisos shipwreck from the end of the 5th century BC, Greece; the Kyrenia shipwreck from the end of the 4th — beginning of the 3rd centuries BC in Cyprus. In the Black Sea, in 2011 a shipwreck from the end of the 4th — beginning of the 3rd centuries BC near Eregli, Turkey (ancient Herakleia Pontica) was discovered by a deep-sea expedition of the research vessel «Nautilus» under the direction of Michael Brennan at a depth of 101 m. Most of the known merchant ships of this period were small, ranging from 12 to 17 m (table). Boris Peters provides a reconstruction sketch of the Lake Donuzlav ship of the late 4th — early 3rd centuries BC. It is almost identical to the reconstruction of the Kyrenia merchant ship, based on its hull which was preserved by 75 %, The replica named «Kyrenia 2» was built and made several voyages. It can be assumed that the Kinburn Spit ship found in 2018 was of similar appearance but further research will provide more detailed information.

References

Blavatskii, V. D., Peters, B. G. 1969. Korablekrushenie kontsa IV — nachala III vv. do n. e. okolo Donuzlava. Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 3, s. 151-158.

Herodot. 1993. Istorii v deviaty knyhakh. Per. A. O. Biletskoho. Kyiv: Naukova dumka.

Kryvulchenko, A. I. 2016. Kinburn: landshafty, suchasnyi stan ta znachennia. Kropyvnytskyi: Tsentralnoukrainske vydavnytstvo.

Lotsiia… 1987. Lotsiia Chernogo moria. Moskva: Ministerstvo oborony Soiuza SSR; Glavnoe upravlenie navigatsii i okeanografii.

Monakhov, S. Iu. 1992. Dinamika form i standartov sinopskikh amfor. In: Kats, V. I., Monakhov, S. Iu. (ed.). Grecheskie amfory. Saratov: SGU, s. 163-204.

Monakhov, S. Iu. 1999. Grecheskie amfory v Prichernomore. Kompleksy keramicheskoi tary VII—II vekov do n. e. Saratov: SGU.

Monakhov, S. Iu. 2003. Grecheskie amfory v Prichernomore. Tipologiia amfor vedushchikh tsentrov-eksporterov tovarov v keramicheskoi tare: Katalog-opredelitel. Moskva; Saratov: Kimmerida; SGU.

Monakhov, S. Iu. 2014. Kosskie i psevdokosskie amfory i kleima. Stratum plus, 3, s. 195-222.

Peters, B. G. 1982. Morskoe delo v antichnykh gosudarstvakh Severnogo Prichernomoria. Moskva: Nauka.

Soznik, V. V. Tsetskhladze, G. R. 1991. Kolkhidskie amfory ellinisticheskogo perioda v Khersonese (k voprosu ob ekonomicheskikh sviaziakh Kolkhidy i Khersonesa). Vestnik drevnei istorii, 2 (197), s. 61-67.

Turovskii, E. Ia. 2001. Drevnie amfory v Severnom Prichernomore. Spravochnik-opredelitel. Kiev.

Tsetskhladze, G. R. 1992. Proizvodstvo amfornoi tary v Kolkhide. In: Kats, V. I., Monakhov, S. Iu. (ed.). Grecheskie amfory. Saratov: SGU, s. 90-110.

Benoit, F. 1961. A L’epave du Grand Conglue a Marseille. Gallia, Supplement XIV. Paris.

Brennan, M. L., Davis, D., Ballard, R. D., Trembanis, A. C., Vaughn, J. I., Duman, M., Du Val, C. 2016. Quantification of bottom trawl fishing damage to ancient shipwreck sites. Marine Geology, 371, p. 82-88.

Cousteau, J. Y. 1954. Fish Men Discover a 2200-year-old Greek Ship. The National Geographic Magazine, 1, p. 16.

Davis, D., Brennan, M. L., Opait, A., Beatrice, J. S. 2018. The Eregli E Shipwreck, Turkey: an early Hellenistic merchant ship in the Black Sea. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 47, 1, p. 57-80.

Demesticha, S. 2011. The 4th-Century-BC Mazotos Shipwreck, Cyprus: a preliminary report. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 40, 1, p. 39-59.

Eiseman, C. J., Ridgway, B. S. 1987. The Porticello Shipwreck: A Mediterranean Merchant Vessel of 415—385 BC. Texas.

Elpida, H. 1996. Underwater Excavations of a Late Fifth century Merchant Ship at Alonnesos, Greece: the 1991—1993 Seasons. Bulletin de correspondence helenique, 120, 2, p. 561-593.

Hoghammar, K. 2004. The Hellenistic Polis of Kos. State, Economy and Culture. Uppsala.

IOSPE — Latyschev, B. V. 1916. Hecates Lucus N 327. Inscriptiones antique Orae Septentionalis Ponti Euxini I, inscriptions Tyrae, Olbiae, Chersonesi Tauricae, Aliorum Locorum a Danubio Usque ad Regnum Bosporanum. Petrograd, s. 274-276.

Katzev, M. 1969. The Kyrenia Shipwreck. Expedition, 11, 2, p. 55-59.

Tereshchenko, O. I. 2013a. Underwater Archaeological Exploration of an Ancient Greek Merchant Ship Near the Zmiinyi Island in the Black Sea (2011 Field Season). Ukrainian Archaeology, p. 44-56.

Tereshchenko, O. I. 2013b. Ancient Greek Merchant Ship Zmiinyi-Patrocles (Cargo Composition). Ukrainian Archaeology, p. 57-69.


Abstract views: 28
PDF Downloads: 30
Published
2021-11-03
How to Cite
Gerasimov, V. Y., Reida, R. M., Smyrnov, O. I., Prejs, P., & Loizou, E. (2021). THE SHIP WRECK OF THE LATE 4th / EARLY 3rd CENTURY BC NEAR KINBURN SPIT. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 40(3), 175-185. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2021.03.11