THE FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT IN CHOTYNIEC IN PREVIOUS STUDIES


Keywords: fortified settlement, excavations, Chotyniec, south-eastern Poland, Scythian cultural circle

Abstract

The article presents the current state of research on the hillfort in Chotyniec, excavated since 2016. The scope and methods of excavations and other research works (e. g. geophysical prospection) are discussed. So far, the focus has been on studying the «zolnik» and identifying the embankments, uncovering an impressive array of artifacts and recording very interesting stratigraphic observations. The original size of the «zolnik» can be calculated (estimated) on the basis of the preserved systems of scattered layers, saturated with burning and charcoal. In the horizontal projection, they marked an almost circular surface with approximate dimensions of 20.8 (E—W) × 21 m (N—S). The maximum height of the «zolnik» could be up to 2 m from its base. The arrangement of layers turned out to be very interesting, allowing the reconstruction of the stages of setting up and using this object. It provided an exceptional amount of artifacts — fragments of ceramics, including Greek amphoras for wine, brown and bone arrowheads, brown pins, a necklace and small ornaments, glass and ceramic beads, clay spindles, «katushki» and a fragment of a figurine. The series of other ceramics is also very important, among which typical forms like pots and bowls. Completely reconstructed amphora of Klazomenei, as well as fragments of others, including those related to the Lesbos circle, indicate a convergent chronology at the end of the 7th and the beginning of the 6th century BC. A similar chronology is shared by brown and bone arrowheads, representing different types within four main groups dated from the end or even from the 2nd half of the 7th century BC to the middle of the 6th century BC. On the other hand, the series of radiocarbon dates, in connection with the stratigraphy, shows a slightly different chronological range. It confirms the older horizon from the second half of the 7th century, but also clearly points to the 6th—5th centuries BC, and one of the dates is even younger. The hillfort in Chotyniec, together with the surrounding settlements, forms a very interesting settlement complex — the most northwestern enclave of the Scythian cultural circle. We can say that it is an extremely interesting microregion, and its importance is multifaceted. It concerns the possibility of getting to know the relations (e. g. chronological, functional, etc.) of the settlement and its surroundings, which is not so common in the archeology of the Early Iron Age in this part of Europe. In a broader territorial perspective, the Chotyniec agglomeration forces corrections to the existing, well-established findings on the relationship of the Scythian world with other cultures — e. g. the Lusatian cultural circle or a group of groups and cultures in Volhynia.

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Published
2022-04-06
How to Cite
Czopek, S., Trybała-Zawiślak, K., & Tokarczyk, T. (2022). THE FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT IN CHOTYNIEC IN PREVIOUS STUDIES. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 42(1), 105-114. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2022.01.07