GRAIN FROM MEDJYBIZH


  • S. A. Gorbanenko Institute of Archaeology, the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4786-0369
  • Yu. I. Tolkachov Kyiv Regional Center for the Protection and Research of Cultural Heritage
Keywords: Medjybizh, Ancient Rus period, Lithuanian and Polish period, rye.

Abstract

During the archaeological research of the Medjybizh fortress (fig. 1), palaeoethnobotanical materials were found three times in its yard: in 1991, 2013 and 2015. The first definition was made by G. O. Pashkevich. Mostly rye was identified as well as bromus, sorrel and an ergot fungus claviceps purpurea. From materials ща 2015 about 30 ml of grain were provided, mostly rye, which is approximately 1800—2000 grains. This is a sample of the harvest of one year. Single kernels of hulled barley (5); emmer (2) and soft wheat (1) were identified. Weeds are represented by 3 species, they are convolvulus (19), brome grasses (11) and cleavers (7) (figs. 2—4).

Identified weeds are concomitant for cultivated cereals and real anthropochores; they may be useful for therapeutic purposes. Brome grass is a winter plant that pollutes crops of winter rye and wheat.

Fields pollution indicates a use of old arable fields: the population lived in this place continuously from the eleventh century. Consequently, the fields exploded about 2—3 centuries. Winter crops also show the use of old arable fields. According to the aggregate of weeds, these fields were located on high places with droughty soils. According to the analysis of topography and soil, these fields were in the western sector on the elevated plateau (supposedly the places of Dolzhok and Pereimska Dacha).

Find of the rye also indirectly indicates a high level of development of agriculture. While plowing tools from Medzhybizh are unknown, we should assume the use of plow, which is the most progressive form of them.

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Published
2019-09-25
How to Cite
GorbanenkoS. A., & TolkachovY. I. (2019). GRAIN FROM MEDJYBIZH. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 32(3), 176-183. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.03.14