BURIALS OF THE AMAZONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE DNIEPER REGION


Keywords: Amazon, Barrow, Tomb, Scythian Time, funeral rites, inventory, Forest-steppe Dnieper.

Abstract

The burials of armed women of the territory of forest-steppe Dnieper region of the Scythian Age are analysed in the paper.

The presented series consists of 27 complexes which are located on the territory of the Forest-steppe region of the Right Bank of the Dnieper (21), Left Bank territories (3) and Terrace Forest-Steppe (3). 14 graves (half of the total number) had been robbed which makes the reliability and informational content of this sample quite suitable for research. The burials of the Amazons of this region were made in a kurgan except for one (ground or flat grave). The height of the mounds varies from 0.2 to 7.6 m, diameter — from 8.7 to 63 m. Only three graves in the group were inserted to the mound.

The graves are represented by five types. Three types of the pits prevail (81.5 %), two variants of the catacombs are also presented (two and three respectively). The wide use of wood is one of the features of the structure of funerary complexes of the Forest-Steppe Amazons. Thus, the burial structures correspond to the Scythian traditions but have certain local specifics.

All burials are inhumations. Individual burials are predominant. Age affiliation was detected in 11 cases (more than 40 %). Only two age groups of the deceased are represented — ranging from 15—20 to 35 years.

The grave goods include various types of weapons (mainly arrows and spears), horse bridles, various de­corations, including precious metals and semiprecious stones, mirrors, tools, sets of various tableware etc. These sets, on the one hand, seem to be common for the Amazons of European Scythia, and on the other hand, they have specific regional features.

Kurgans with burials of armed women have a fairly broad date: from the second part — end of the 7th till the 4th—3rd centuries BC.

References

Bobrinskiy, A. A. 1887. Kurgany i sluchaynyye arkheologicheskiye nakhodki bliz mestechka Smely. Sankt-Peterburg: M. M. Stasyulevicha, 1: Dnevniki pyatiletnikh raskopok.
Bobrinskiy, A. A. 1894. Kurgany i sluchaynyye arkheologicheskiye nakhodki bliz mestechka Smely. Sankt-Peterburg: B. S. Balashova i Ko, 2: Dnevniki raskopok 1887—1889 gg.
Bobrinskiy, A. A. 1901. Kurgany i sluchaynyye arkheologicheskiye nakhodki bliz mestechka Smely. Sankt Peterburg: M. M. Stasyulevicha, 3.
Bobrinskiy, A. A. 1905. Otchet o raskopkakh bliz sel Zhurovka i Kapitanovka. Izvestiya Imperatorskoy Arkheologicheskoy Komissii, 17, s. 17-98.
Holubieva, I. V. 2014. Zvit pro rozkopky kurhaniv skifskoho chasu bilia s. Kustorivka Kachalivskoi silskoi rady Krasnokutskoho raionu Kharkivskoi oblasti u 2013 r. NA IA NANU, b. n.
Kovpanenko, G. T., Bessonova, S. S., Skoryy, S. A. 1989. Pamyatniki skifskoy epokhi Dneprovskogo Lesostepnogo Pravoberezhia. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Koltukhov, S. G. 2012. Skify Severo-Zapadnogo Kryma v VII—IV vv. do n. e. (pogrebalnyye pamyatniki). Donetsk: Donbass. Arkheologicheskiy almanakh, 27.
Melnik, V. I. 2016. Pogrebalnoye sooruzheniye: prirodnaya sreda. traditsiya. obryad. In: Gey, A. N., Sorokina, I. A. (ed.). Arkheologicheskaya nauka: praktika. teoriya. istoriya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov pamyati I. S. Kamenetskogo. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 283-287.
Petrenko, V. G. 1967. Pravoberezhye Srednego Pridneprovia v V III vv. do n. e. Moskva: Nauka.
Pokrovska, Ye. F. 1957. Kurhany IV st. do n. e. bilia Kholodnoho Yaru poblyzu m. Smily. Arkheolohiia, Х, s. 65-79.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1925. Skifiya i Bospor. Kriticheskoye obozreniye pamyatnikov literaturnykh i arkheologicheskikh. Leningrad: Leningradskaja trudovaja artel pechatnikov.
Skoryy, S. A. 1997. Steblev: skifskiy mogilnik v Porosye. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Skoryy, S. A., Orlik, A. P., Zimovets, R. V. 2018. Issledovaniye skifskogo kurgana na yuge Kirovogradshchiny. Arkheologіya і davnya іstorіya Ukrainy, 2 (27), s. 352-357.
Telnov, N. P., Chetverikov, I. A., Sinika, V. S. 2016. Skifskiy mogilnik III—II vv. do n. e. u s. Glinoye. Tiraspol: Stratum plus.
Fialko, E. E. 1991. Pogrebeniya zhenshchin s oruzhiyem u skifov. In: Boltrik, Yu. V., Bunyatyan, E. P. (ed.). Kurgany Stepnoy Skifii. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 4-18.
Fialko, E. E. 2011. Amazonka i kon. In: Novichenkova, N. G. (ed.). Istoriko-kulturnoye naslediye Prichernomoria: izucheniye i ispolzovaniye v obrazovanii i turizme. Tezisy dokladov. Yalta: RIO Krymskogo Gumanitarnogo Universiteta, s. 212-214.
Fialko, E. E. 2015a. Amazonki vo vremeni i prostranstve. Arkheologіya і davnya іstorіya Ukrainy, 4 (17), s. 46-99.
Fialko, O. Ye. 2015b. Druzhynnyi mohylnyk skifiv na Livoberezhnii Khersonshchyni. Starozhytnosti Stepovoho Prychornomor’ia i Krymu, XVIII, s. 120-156.
Fialko, E. E. 2017. Seriya pogrebeniy skifskikh voitelnits v mogilnike u s. Glinoye (Moldova). Arkheologіya і davnya іstorіya Ukrainy, 2 (23), s. 208-227.
Fialko, E. E. 2018a. Skifskiye amazonki: sostoyaniye izuchennosti. Arkheologіya і davnya іstorіya Ukrainy, 2 (31), s. 388-398.
Fialko, O. Ye. 2018b. Ckifski amazonky v Krymu. Magisterium, Arkheolohichni studii, 70, s. 67-77.
Fialko, O. Ye., Neroda, V. V. 2019. Pokhovannia skifskoi amazonky na Cherkashchyni. Arkheolohiia i davnia istoriia Ukrainy, 2 (27), s. 352-357.
Chernenko, E. V., Bessonova, S. S., Boltrik, Yu. V., Polin, S. V., Skoryy, S. A., Bokiy, N. M., Grebennikov, Yu. S. 1986. Skifskiye pogrebalne pamyatniki stepey Severnogo Prichernomoria. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Fialko, E. 2017. Scythian female warriors in the south of Eastern Europe. Folia Praehistorica Posnanyensia, XXII, p. 29-47.

Abstract views: 119
PDF Downloads: 153
Published
2019-12-25
How to Cite
Fialko, O. Y. (2019). BURIALS OF THE AMAZONS OF THE FOREST-STEPPE DNIEPER REGION. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 33(4), 80-96. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.04.05