«BUDINIA OR SCYTHIA?» THE ETHNIC AND CULTURAL BELONGING OF THE MIDDLE DON POPULATION DURING 5th—4th centuries BC


  • V. I. Guliaev Institute of Archaeology Russian Academy of Sciences
Keywords: Scythians, barrows, elite burials, cult vessel, Middle Don, gods, Greek art.

Abstract

For over half a century (since the end of the 1950s), the Scythology has been discussing the location of the Scythian and non-scythian tribes mentioned by Herodotus on a geographical map. After the Scythian-Sarmatian conference in 1952 and the report of B. N. Grakov and A. I. Melyukova, most of archaeologists supported the idea that only the Black Sea steppe belonged to the Scythians, and non-scythian peoples and tribes inhabited the forest-steppe regions of the Northern Black Sea region. In this regard monuments on the Middle Don dated V—IV centuries BC began to be considered Budinia, belonging to the Budinians and Gelonians. P. D. Lieberov interpreted the Budinians as Finno-Ugric tribes. Archaeological research of the last decades (including the widespread use of the methods of the natural sciences) made it possible to revise this idea and return to the M. I. Rostovtsev and A. I. Terenozhkin point of view about the existence of a single large Scythia covering in the VII—IV centuries BC all the Northern Pontic (steppe and forest-steppe) from the Danube to the Don.

References

Alekseyev, A. Yu. 1986. Grecheskaya keramika iz Aleksandropolskogo kurgana. Sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 51, s. 35-38.
Alekseyev, A. Yu. 1987. Khronografiya Skifii vtoroy poloviny IV v. do n. e. Arkheologicheskiy sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 28, s. 38-52.
Alekseyev, A. Yu. 2012. Zoloto skifskikh tsarey v sobranii Ermitazha. Sankt-Peterburg: Gosudarstvennyy Ermitazh.
Antipina, E. E. 2001. Arkheozoologicheskiye materialy iz raskopok pamyatnikov skifskogo vremeni na Srednem Donu. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Potudanskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 1993—2000. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 171-188.
Bessonova, S. S. 1983. Religioznyye predstavleniya skifov. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Bessonova, S. S. 2004. Krylatyy kon-gippokamp-morskoy konek i skifskiy Poseydon. Starozhitnosti Stepovogo Prichernomorya i Krimu, XI, s. 25-30.
Velikhovskaya, K. A. (ed.). 2013. Skifskaya zolotaya blyashka iz Belgorodskogo istoriko-krayevedcheskogo muzeya. Muzeynyy god. Kollektsiya. Belgorod.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2001. Obshchiye problemy arkheologii Srednego Dona skifskogo vremeni. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Potudanskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 1993—2000. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 18-53.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2004. Eshche raz k voprosu ob etnokulturnoy situatsii v Srednem Podonye v skifskoye vremya. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2001—2003. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 7-25.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2008. «Prestizhnyye» veshchi iz srednedonskikh kurganov skifskogo vremeni i problema edinoy Skifii. In: Moshkova, M. G. (ed.). Problemy sovremennoy arkheologii. Moskva: Taus, s. 155-173.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2009a. Pogrebalnyy obryad kak etnoistoricheskiy istochnik (po materialam srednedonskikh kurganov skifskogo vremeni. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2008. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 10-26.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2009b. Paradnyye mechi V—IV vv. do n. e. iz kurganov Skifii. Arkheologicheskiye pamyatniki Vostochnoy Evropy. Mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh trudov, 13, s. 147-152.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2017. Aleksandropol — «tsarskiy» kurgan skifov: vzglyad so storony Srednego Dona. Vestnik MGU: Seriya 8: Istoriya, 4, s. 123-144.
Gulyayev, V. I. 2018. Boginya Kibela — vladychitsa zverey — v skifskom iskusstve. Rossiyskaya arkheologiya, 1, s. 105-117.
Gulyayev, V. I. Savchenko, E. I. 2004. Novyy pamyatnik skifskogo vremeni na Srednem Donu. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2001—2003. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 35-53.
Dobrovolskaya, M. V. 2004. K antropologii naseleniya Srednego Dona v skifskoye vremya. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2001—2003. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 69-107.
Dobrovolskaya, M. V. 2009a. Paleodemografiya srednedonskogo naseleniya rannego zheleznogo veka. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2008. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 174-186.
Dobrovolskaya, M. V. 2009b. Travmaticheskiye povrezhdeniya na skeletnykh ostankakh lyudey iz kurgannykh nekropoley Srednego Dona. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2009. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 186-198.
Drevnosti Gerodotovoy Skifii. 1866. Sankt-Peterburg, 1.
Zamyatnin, S. N. 1946. Skifskiy mogilnik «Chastyye Kurgany» pod Voronezhem. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, VIII, s. 9-51.
Lebedeva, E. Yu. Antipina, E. E. 2009. Gorodishche Rossoshki — «postoyannyy adres ili vremennaya propiska?». In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2008. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 198-221.
Leskov, A. M. 1981. Kurgany: nakhodki. problemy. Leningrad: Nauka.
Liberov, P. D. 1965. Pamyatniki skifskogo vremeni na Srednem Donu. Moskva: Nauka. Svod arkheologicheskikh istochnikov, D 1—31.
Makarenko, N. E. 1911. Arkheologicheskiye issledovaniya 1907—1909 gg. Izvestiya Imperatorskoy Arkheologicheskoy Komissii, 43, s. 47-76.
Mantsevich, A. P. 1966. Derevyannyye sosudy skifskoy epokhi. Arkheologicheskiy sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 8, s. 23-38.
Mantsevich, A. P. 1973. Mastyuginskiye kurgany. Arkheologicheskiy sbornik Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha, 15, s. 12-46.
Machinskiy, D. A. 1978. O smysle izobrazheniy na Chertomlytskoy amfore. Problemy arkheologii, 2, s. 232-240.
Mozolevskiy, B. N. 1972. Kurgan Tolstaya Mogila bliz g. Ordzhonikidze na Ukraine (predvaritelnaya publikatsiya). Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 3, s. 268-309.
Mozolevskiy, B. N. 1973. Skifskiye pogrebeniya u s. Nagornoye bliz g. Ordzhonikidze na Dnepropetrovshchine. In: Terenozhkin, A. I. (ed.). Skifskiye drevnosti. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 187-235.
Onayko, N. A. 1977. Apollon Giperboreyskiy. In: Kobylina, M. M. (ed.). Istoriya i kultura antichnogo mira. Moskva: Nauka, s. 153-160.
Polin, S. V. 2013. Antropomorfnaya stela iz kurgana Slonovskaya Bliznitsa. In: Kopylov, V. P. (ed.). Prichernomorye v antichnoye i rannesrednevekovoye vremya. Rostov-na-Donu, s. 203-215.
Puzikova, A. I. 2001. Kurgannyye mogilniki skifskogo vremeni Srednego Podonia (publikatsiya materialov). Moskva: Indrik.
Rayevskiy, D. S. 1970. Skifskiy mifologicheskiy syuzhet v iskusstve i ideologii tsarstva Ateya. Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 3, s. 90-102.
Rayevskiy, D. S. 1977. Ocherki ideologii skifo-sakskikh plemen. Moskva: Nauka.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1914. Voronezhskiy serebryanyy sosud. Materialy po arkheologii Rossii, 34, s. 79-93.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1913. Predstavleniye o monarkhicheskoy vlasti v Skifii i na Bospore. Izvestiya Imperatorskoy Arkheologicheskoy Komissii, 49, s. 1-62.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1918. Ellinstvo i iranstvo na yuge Rossii. Petrograd.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1925. Skifiya i Bospor. Leningrad.
Rostovtsev, M. I. 1993. Iranizm i ionizm na yuge Rossii. Skifika. Peterburgskiy arkheologicheskiy vestnik, 5: Izbrannyye raboty akademika M. I. Rostovtseva, s. 19-22.
Savchenko, E. I. 2001. Mogilnik skifskogo vremeni Ternovoye I — Kolbino I na Srednem Donu (pogrebalnyy obryad). In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Potudanskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 1993—2000. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 53-144.
Savchenko, E. I. 2004. Vooruzheniye i predmety snaryazheniya naseleniya skifskogo vremeni na Srednem Donu. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2001—2003. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 151-277.
Savchenko, E. I. 2009. Snaryazheniye konya skifskogo vremeni na Srednem Donu kak arkheologicheskiy istochnik. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2008. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 221-329.
Spitsyn, A. A. 1918. Kurgany «skifov-pakharey». Izvestiya Imperatorskoy Arkheologicheskoy Komissii, 65, s. 87-143.
Chernenko, E. V. 1968. Skifskiy dospekh. Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Shaub, I. Yu. 2007. Mif. Kult. Ritual v Severnom Prichernomorye (VII—IV vv. do n. e.). Sankt-Peterburg.
Shevchenko, A. A. 2009. Novyye materialy k izucheniyu kurgannogo mogilnika skifskogo vremeni Kolbino I na Srednem Donu. In: Gulyayev, V. I. (ed.). Arkheologiya Srednego Dona v skifskuyu epokhu. Trudy Donskoy arkheologicheskoy ekspeditsii IA RAN. 2004—2008. Moskva: IA RAN, s. 26-112.
Reeder, E. D. (ed.). 1999. Scythian Gold. Treasures from ancient Ukraine. New York, Harry N. Abrams.

Abstract views: 66
PDF Downloads: 89
Published
2019-03-25
How to Cite
Guliaev, V. I. (2019). «BUDINIA OR SCYTHIA?» THE ETHNIC AND CULTURAL BELONGING OF THE MIDDLE DON POPULATION DURING 5th—4th centuries BC. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 31(2), 53-66. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.02.03