• V. I. Klochko National University of «Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
Keywords: Ukraine, Early Bronze Age, yamna culture, metal axis, typology and chronology.


The paper is dedicated to studying the genesis and building the typechronology of metal axes of early period of yamna culture of Ukraine using all the artifacts and archaeological complexes, available for the author.

Currently the reare two main theories of metal axes of Eastern Europe origins: «Maykop» and «Samara».

 The main theses of «Maykop» theory are presented in works of E. N. Chernyh, S. N. Kornievsky and A. L. Nechytailo. Detailed historiographic referative representation of this theory was recently preformedby V. A. Derhachev, which readers should get acquainted themselves. From my point of view the main problem of this theory is that on the line of ax is connections Baniabik-Maykop-Novosvobodnaya of Central Europe and North Caucasus, declared by the authors of this theory, terra incognita called «Ukraine» is located.

The alternative theory, which I call «Samara», and which is systematically ignored by the authors and followers of «Maykop» theory, including V. A. Derhachev, was initiated by myself in 1990th. Which means it is 25 years old by now.

New artifacts, found in recent years, allowed me to modernize my theory and use it as the basis for the new typechronology of metal axes of early period of yamna culture of Ukraine, presented in this paper and come to following conclusions:

Metal axis of Baniabik type originated from ax is of Samara type of Eneolithic age, in the society of yamna culture Middle Dnipro Land of Early Bronze Age, in the cultural and technological center of yamna culture of Eastern Europe.

Speaking of Baniabik treasure, it should be considered a treasure of long-term accumulation, judging by the different-time axis of yamna culture, presented there. This depository had probably originated in a sacred ground of yamna culture tribes, which occurred during their long-term migrations from Middle Dnipro Land to Transylvania. Therefore Baniabik type axis can be considered as archaeological markers of ancient indo-europeans migrations to Central Europe. They are the ones to bring new «Caucasus» technologies to Central Europe, however not from the Caucasus, but from Ukraine.


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How to Cite
Klochko, V. I. (2019). METAL AXES OF THE EARLY PERIOD OF YAMNA CULTURE OF UKRAINE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 31(2), 67-75.