ABOUT NEW FINDS OF THE HORSE HARNESS OF SCYTHIAN-SARMATIAN AGE FROM ZAKUBANYE


  • S. L. Dudarev Armavir State Pedagogical University
  • V. A. Berezhnaya Labinsk Museum of History and Local History named after F.I. Moiseenko
  • S. P. Kolkova Voznesenskaya Children’s Library-museum
Keywords: Meotians, Scythians, Zakubanye, loop-like bits, cross-shaped cheek-pieces, double-holed straight cheek-pieces, S-shaped cheek-pieces.

Abstract

The article introduces into the scientific circulation the objects of the horse harness of the Scythian and Sarmatian time, found at different times by local residents and local historians of the village of Voznesenskaya, Labinsky district, Krasnodar region of the Russian Federation, and located in the local children’s library-museum. A notable feature of some of the published iron loopy bridle bits are the large sizes of their links (up to 30 cm). This probably indicates a dilution in the second half of the 1st millennium BC in Zakubanye of a large-breed horse breed, which was the forerunner of the famous Kabardian breed of these animals. Its origins, the eminent archeologist-кavkazologyst, E. I. Krupnov traced to the beginning of the early Iron Age. The subject of consideration of the authors of the article are also the features of the cross-shaped nozzles with spikes, which are available on a number of published looped rods, or on their individual links. Most of the presented «cross-shaped nozzles» on the bits (Fig. 1: 2, 4—5; 2: 2) may be ultimately described, following I. I. Marchenko, as a psalm in the form of a small cross with flattened sharp curved spikes. Functionally, «strict» cheek-pieces and nozzles performed the same role. As shown by E. I. Savchenko, they were located at the outer rings of the rods and when the reins were tensioned, they pressed on the toothless edges of the horse’s jaw. Three separate types of specimens can be distinguished from those who are separately from the angled duplicates: 1. bipods (Fig. 3: 4, 5); 2. rod short straight two types — a specimen tapering towards the ends (Fig. 3: 6) and a sample with cylindrical grooved processes extending from the holes (Fig. 3: 7); 3. S-visible with knobs on the ends (Fig. 3: 1—3).

The published bits and cheek-pieces belong to the types common in the Northern Black Sea Region and the Northern Caucasus dating back to the 5th—1st cc. BC. At the same time, most of them may have a narrower dating. For the bits with one broken off outer ring (Fig. 2: 1), the date should be marked — the end of IV—III c. BC. For bits in Fig. 2: 2, as well as links of samples like them depicted in Fig. 1: 2, 4, 5, one can accept the date of I. I. Marchenko — IV — first half of the 3rd century BC. Link fished with a hat may be attributed to the IV BC, as having a parallel in the Melitopol mound. Date of duplicated cheek-pieces with two lobes (Fig. 3: 4) — III — first half of I c. BC. Rod duplicated cheek-pieces (Fig. 3: 6, 7) may date to the 4th—3rd centuries BC, S-visible, most likely, the early period of this time period.

The items presented in the article characterize the occupation of the local Meotian population by horse breeding, which since Pre-Scythian time has been one of the most important economic branches of the autochthons of Zakubanye.

References

Beglova, E. A. 2010. Voinskie pogrebeniya Tenginskogo gruntovogo mogil’nika. Material’naya kul’tura Vostoka, 5, s. 149-166.
Voronov, Yu. N. 1975. Vooruzhenie drevneabhazskih plemen v VI—I vv. do n. e. In: Mozolevskij, B. N. (ed.). Skifskij mir. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 218-234.
Galanina, L. K. 1997. Kelermesskie kurgany. «Tsarskie» pogrebeniya ranneskifskoj epohi. Moskva.
Zajcev, Yu. P. 2007. Kompleks iz Gevani (k probleme hronologii III v. do n. e.). In: Zuev, V. Yu. (ed.). Bosporskij fenomen: sakral’nyj smysl regiona, pamyatnikov, nahodok. Materialy mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii. Sankt-Peterburg, 2, s. 258-268.
Il’inskaya, V. A. 1973. Skifskaya uzda IV v. do n. e. In: Terenozhkin, A. I. (ed.). Skifskie drevnosti. Kiev: Naukova dumka, s. 42-63.
Kovpanenko, G. T., Bessonova, S. S., Skoryj, S. A. 1989. Pamyatniki skifskoj epohi Dneprovskogo Lesostepnogo Pravoberezhya (Kievsko-Cherkasskij region). Kiev: Naukova dumka.
Kozenkova, V. I. 1995. Oruzhie, voinskoe i konskoe snaryazhenie plemen kobanskoj kul’tury (sistematizaciya i hronologiya). Zapadnyj variant. Moskva: Nauka.
Krupnov, E. I. 1960. Drevnyaya istoriya Severnogo Kavkaza. Moskva: AN SSSR.
Kudryavcev, A. A., Kudryavcev E. A., Prokopenko, Yu. A. 2000. Kompleks predmetov konskogo ubora pozdneskifskogo vremeni iz mogilnika N 2 Tatarskogo gorodishcha goroda Stavropolya. Donskaya arheologiya, 2, s. 40-47.
Leskov A. M., Beglova E. A., Ksenofontova I. V., Erlih, V. R. 2013. Meoty Zakubanya IV—III vv. do n. e.: nekropoli u aulya Ulyap. Svyatilishcha i ritualnye kompleksy. Moskva: Gosudarstvennyj Muzej Vostoka.
Marchenko, I. I. 1996. Siraki Kubani. Krasnodar: KGU.
Pallas, P. S. 2010. Zametki o puteshestvii v Yuzhnye namestnichestva Rossijskogo gosudarstva v 1794—1974 gg. In: Ataikov, V, (ed.). Kavkaz: evropejskie dnevniki XIII—XVIII vekov. Nal’chik: M. i V. Kotlyarovy, s. 247-283.
Pejssonnel’, Sh. 2010. Traktat o torgovle na Chernom more. In: Ataikov, V, (ed.). Kavkaz: evropejskie dnevniki XIII—XVIII vekov. Nal’chik: M. i V. Kotlyarovy, s. 122-140.
Savchenko, E. I. 2006. Udila Srednego Dona v skifskoe vremya. Arheologicheskie pamyatniki Vostochnoj Evropy, 12, s. 126-132.
Skoryj, S. A. 2003. Skify v Dneprovskoj Pravoberezhnoj Lesostepi. Kiev: IA NANU.
Sokrovishcha… 1985. Sokrovishcha kurganov Adygei. Katalog vystavki. Moskva: Sovetskij hudozhnik.
Erlih, V. R. 2011. Svyatilishcha nekropolya Tenginskogo gorodishcha II, IV v. do n. e. Moskva: Nauka.

Abstract views: 42
PDF Downloads: 116
Published
2019-06-25
How to Cite
Dudarev, S. L., Berezhnaya, V. A., & Kolkova, S. P. (2019). ABOUT NEW FINDS OF THE HORSE HARNESS OF SCYTHIAN-SARMATIAN AGE FROM ZAKUBANYE. Archaeology and Early History of Ukraine, 31(2), 287-293. https://doi.org/10.37445/adiu.2019.02.20