MICROLITHIC COMPLEX OF LATE GRAVETTIAN OF NORTHERN UKRAINE: ON THE EXAMPLE OF PUSHKARI I AND KLIUSY SITES
This article deals with new results of research microlithic complex of late Gravettian sites Pushkari I and Kliusy (Chernihiv region). The study is based on two large flint collections: Pushkari I, excavation 7 (1998—2018 by V. I. Belyaeva and P. M. Vasyliev) — 36777 units, where 4 % are tools, and 28 % of them are microlithic tools with fragments; Kliusy, excavation 1966 by I. G. Shovkoplyas — 9372 units, where 7.5 % are tools, and 35.5 % of them are microlithic tools with fragments.
Microlithic complex from Pushkari I consist of 416 units — backed points (23 %), rectangles (8 %) and their fragments (64 %). Backed points represented by three main types: backed retouched 47 %, semi abrupt retouched 43 %, backed retouched with oblique retouched proximal part 10 %. It’s interesting that more of points with semi abrupt retouched have convex backed side, and backed retouched have a straight side. Rectangles also have divided at backed retouched (42 %), semi abrupt retouched (49 %) and small irregular retouched (9 %). In addition to the retouch they are different in size, semi abrupt retouched microlithics are bigger.
Microlithic complex from Kliusy consist of 283 units — backed points (20 %), rectangles (10 %) and their fragments (67 %). Backed points represented by three main types: backed retouched 47 %, semi abrupt retouched 43 %, backed retouched with oblique retouched proximal part 10 %. Also, in complex submitted 4 units (7 %) of shouldered points, probably they are related to different part of the site. Rectangles have divided at backed retouched (28 %), semi abrupt retouched (48 %) and small irregular retouched (24 %).
The comparative analysis of the microlithic complexes of Pushkari I and Kliusy sites lots shows, in general, typological and statistical identity. The complexes are represented by products that were used on common principles, but with slightly different shapes. The points of Pushkar I and Kliusy have one retouched long edge, with a puncturing end and a transversely truncated proximal part. At the same time retouching gives the workpiece a straight or convex blunt edge, in Pushkari I dominates — a straight line (68 %), and in Klyusy — a convex (72 %). According to the author, the shape of the blunt edge of the attachment may affect the way it is attached to the tip of the composite tool. Further studies on the study of microlithic complexes, with the involvement of modern science and technology, will provide more information on one of the main spheres of life in primitive society — hunting. Where microlithic products acted as attachments that formed the blades / blades of composite tips from organic materials.
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